of 13

4 Informants and Surveillance

Published on 2 weeks ago | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 0 | Comments: 0

Comments

Content

 

INFORMANTS, SURVEILLANCE, AND UNDERCOVER OPERATIONS OPERATIONS"Good "Good informant, good case. Bad informant, bad case. No informant, no case." (Police saying)   The aili!y !o e ""eso#"ce$#l eso#"ce$#l a! in$o"%a!ion ga!he"ing an& collec!ion is !he 'ey 'ey &e!e"%inan! o$ s#ccess a! oli olicing cing an& i!h c"i%inal in*es!iga!ion+ hen olice a"e lac'ing i!nesses (hich is o$!en !he case), esecially eyei!nesses, &ealing i!h sohis sohis!ica!e& !ica!e& c"i%inals, o" no! ge!!ing %#ch o#! o$ !healso c"i%e scene !#"n !o !"ie& an& %e!ho&s o$ la s#"*eillance+ O!he" so#"ces o$ in$o"%a!ion e.is! !ha!e*i&ence, a"e ei!he"!hey #lic o" "i*a!e, oen!"#e o" con/&en!ial, an&en$o"ce%en! !he In!e"ne!, -o$in$o"%an!s co#"se, hasan& eco%e a !"e%en&o#s "ese"*oi" o$ oen so#"ce in$o"%a!ion+ Use o$ in$o"%an!s is !he %o"e legally e"%issi*e, ye! e!hically "e#gnan! ac!i*i!y0 an& #se o$ s#"*eillance is !he %o"e legally "eg#la!e&, ye! e!hically so#n& ac!i*i!y ac!i*i!y++ Tha!1s eca#se in$o"%an!s a"e o$!en #se& in !he loose, ea"ly hases o$ an in*es!iga!ion !o &e*elo lea&s, an& !he ac!i*i!y o$ %anaging in$o"%an!s al%os! alays in*ol*es co%"o%ising !he in!eg"i!y o$ la en$o"ce%en!+ en$o"ce%en!+ S#"*eillance, on !he o!he" han&, is a ell-es!alishe& c"a$! in*ol*ing !echni2#e an& ga&ge!s, an& is al%os! alays #se& !o seal !he $a!e o$ a !a"ge! ho has %os! li'ely al"ea&y "o*i&e& !he olice i!h i!h eno#gh $ac!s !o es!alish "oale ca#se+ A! leas! !ha!1s %y oinion, #! !he"e a"e !hose (Ma". 3 3455) 455) ho !hin' s#"*eillance is !he g"ea!e" e*il, an& !he"e a"e !hose (Ma&inge" 6777) ho !hin' in$o"%an!s a"e 8#s! ano!he" ay e!hical ci!i9ens can ge! in*ol*e& in la en$o"ce%en!+   I!1s i%o"!an! !o no!e a! !he o#!se! !ha! #se o$ in$o"%an!s an& s#"*eillance sho#l& e %e!ho&s o$ las! ""eso"!+ eso"!+ These a"e no! %e!ho&s $o" sc"eening-o#!, o" eli%ina!ing o!en!ial s#sec!s $"o% $#"!he" consi&e"a!ion0 2#i!e !he oosi!e, !hey :sc"een-in: o" inc"i%ina!e %o"e s#sec!s !han #s#al (;ill 6777)+ 6777)+ These a"e %e!ho&s !ha! a"e e.ensi*e, !i%e-cons#%ing, an& con!"o*e"sial+ They a"e inhe"en!ly s!" s!"ess$#l ess$#l an& &ange"o#s, an& #n&e"co*e" o"' is "is'y+ "is'y+ Any an& all in$o"%a!ion o!aine& $"o% s#ch so#"ces, incl#&ing oen so#"ces, sho#l& e "ega"&e& as #n!"#s!o"!hy #n!il i! is co""oo"a!e& y o!he" so#"ces an&<o" con*e"!e& $"o% in$o"%a!ion in!o in!elligence+ The o"& in!elligence #s#ally %eans in$o"%a!ion !ha! has een s#8ec!e& !o analysis an& syn!hesis+ I! also #s#ally %eans !ha! !he sa%e in$o"%a!ion is co%ing $"o% &i &i=e"en! =e"en! so#"ces an& has een chec'e& o#!, o" !es!e&, as "eliale+ CULTIVATION AND MANA;EMENT OF INFORMANTS   A c#l!i*a!e& so#"ce (as oose& !o a "eg#la" so#"ce) so#"ce) is nei!he" a *ic!i%, i!ness, o" s#sec! in an in*es!iga!ion in*ol*ing !he% o" agains! !he%, #! is so%eone i!h connec!ions !o !he c"i%inal #n&e"o"l& !ha! is ale !o !ell yo# !hings !ha! a"e ao#! !o haen+ Cultivated sources make the best informants+ informants+ A"ehen&e& c"i%inals ho !#"n in$o"%an!s (o" :>i: as i!s calle&) calle&) in hoe o$ ha*ing !hei" cha"ges &"oe& o" "e&#ce& ha*e NOT een c#l!i*a!e&+ Thei" *al#e is o"!hless eca#se e*i&ence la sees !he% as saying o" &oing so% so%e!hing e!hing o#! o$ sel$-in!e" sel$-in!e"es!+ es!+ A! la, !he"e is a "es#%!ion o$ !"#!h in any!hing so%eone says o" &oes agains! !hei" sel$-in!e"es! o" sa$e!y, no! in !hei" sel$-in!e"es! i$ c"i%inal cha"ges a"e en&ing agains! !he%+ I&eally, yo# an! ac!i*e in$o"%an!s "eo"!ing in$o"%a!ion ao#! $#!#"e c"i%e, c"i%e, no! i!ness in$o"%an!s $o" as! c"i%es+ Li'eise,  8ailho#se in$o"%an!s (o" :sni!ches:)   C#l!i*a!e& so#"ces !yically incl#&e eole &oing #siness a"o#n& an a"ea he"e c"i%inals con&#c! !hei" #siness+ #siness+ E.a%les incl#&e !a.i &"i*e"s, ho!el e%loyees, ai"line e%loyees, a#!o%oile saleseole, &oo"%en, g#n &eale"s, a"!en&e"s, "i*a!e in*es!iga!o"s, aa"!%en! %anage"s, ac'age &eli*e"y e%loyees, an& "o"ie!o"s o" e%loyees o$ "es!a#"an!s+ The i&ea is !ha! s#ch eole can ge! as close !o c"i%inal s#sec!s as ossile (as, $o" e.a%le, !hei" "eg#la" a"e" o" "os!i!#!e) i!ho#! ge!!ing so close yo#1"e !"ea&ing on "i*ilege& "ela!ionshis (as,

 

$o" e.a%le, !hei" i$e o" sycho!he"ais!)+ I! sho#l& e o*io#s y no !ha! !hese !yes o$ in$o"%an!s cons!i!#!e a &e*ian! s!"ee! ne!o"' o$ eyes an& ea"s $o" !he olice+ ?y #sing s#ch so#"ces, yo# a"e loo'ing $o" signs signs o$ c"i%e in !he %a'ing+ @o# a"e NOT &oing in/l!"a!ion o" #n&e"co*e" o"'+ I$ any!hing, yo# a"e &oing !he e2#i*alen! o$ esionage o"' y y se!!ing # a "ing o$ sies, o" agen!s-in-lace+ All yo# ha*e !o &o in %anaging s#ch eole is 'ee !he% $"o% &oing o" "o*o'ing c"i%inal !hings, #! also 'ee !he% close !o !hei" on so#"ces o$ 'nole&ge ao#! c"i%inal haenings hich yo# con*enien!ly chec' o#! $o" co""oo"a!ion #"oses+ I! #se& !o e co%%on $o" each an& e*e"y olice oce" !o ha*e !hei" on se! o$ in$o"%an!s o" &e*ian! s!"ee! connec!ions (as &esc"ie& ao*e)+  T  To&ay, o&ay, %os! olice &ea"!%en!s only allo (an& enco#"age) !hei" &e!ec!i*es !o c#l!i*a!e in$o"%an!s, #! !he"e a"e inconsis!encies in ho !hey a"e "egis!e"e& an& han&le&+ Fe&e"al agencies ha*e alays hel& !o !he "ac!ice o$ ""egis!e"ing egis!e"ing in$o"%an!s !o !he agency (al%os! as 2#asi-e%loyees), #! %#nicial agencies !en& !o "egis!e" (hen !hey &o "egis!e" o" "eco"& !he in$o"%an!) !o !he in&i*i&#al &e!ec!i*e+ This c"ea!es !he "ole% o$ los! in$o"%an!s (noo&y con!ac!s !he% any%o"e) hen a %#nicial &e!ec!i*e "e!i"es o" lea*es+ The"e is also !he "ole% o$ ho !o &isse%ina!e &isse%ina!e !he in$o"%an! "egis!"y i!hin !he olice &ea"!%en! (!he Chie$ #s#ally 'ees i! sec"e!) eca#se yo# &on1! an! o!he" oce"s a""es!ing o" %essing i!h yo#" in$o"%an!s+ hen an in$o"%an! is on !he ay"oll, !hey a"e #s#ally "egis!e"e& "egis!e"e& eca#se !he la "e2#i"es /nancial a#&i!ing+ They a"e also %os! li'ely !o hol& !he s!a!#s o$ con/&en!ial in$o"%an!, al!ho#gh !his !e"% !echnically "e$e"s !o in$o"%an!s ho ha*e so%e secial 'nole&ge ao#! a as! o" $#!#"e c"i%e an& a"e o!en!ial !a"ge!s $o" *iolence an& "e*enge+ Con/&en!ial in$o"%an!s, o" CIs, a"e al alloe& loe& !o e "e$e""e& !o as anony%o#s o" #nna%e& aan!s in a&a*i!s, &o no! aea" on any o!he" legal &oc#%en!s, an& ne*e" ha*e !o e &isclose& in co#"! o" *ia any &isco*e"y "ocess+   The %anage%en! o$ in$o"%an!s is %os!ly a %a!!e" o$ 'noing 'noing ha! %o!i*a!es !he%, an& al alays ays %a'ing s#"e !his %o!i*a!ion con!in#es !o ha*e so%e c#""ency+ c#""ency+ The"e a"e %any %o!i*a!ion-ase& !yologies o$ in$o"%an!s in !he li!e"a!#"e+ Os!e"#"g B a" a"& & (6777) "esen! one !ha! &is!ing#ishes !he $olloing

  

 

*ol#n!ee" *ol#n!ee" in$o"%an! in$o"%an! ---- #s#ally #s#ally an ey eyei!ne ei!ness ss !o a c"i%e o" 8eal 8ealo#s o#s s so#se o#se  i!h i!h seci/c seci/c iin$o"%a n$o"%a!ion !ion a ao#! o#! *ice *ice ac!i*i!y ac!i*i!y o" iinco%e nco%e !a. e*as e*asion ion %o!i*a!e& y ci*ic &#!y o" *ani!y an& 'e! %o!i*a!e& y g"a!i!#&e ai& in$o"%an in$o"%an!! -- #s#ally #s#ally s so%eone o%eone in*ol* in*ol*e& e& in a c c"i%e "i%e  i!h i!h a" a"!ic#la !ic#la"s "s ao# ao#!! a e"s e"son on !hey $eel !he olic olice e sho#l& sho#l& 'no ao#! an& an& %o!i*a!e& %o!i*a!e& y "e*enge o" %oney an& 'e! %o!i*a!e& y %oney anony%o#s anony%o#s in$o"%an! in$o"%an! -- #s#ally #s#ally so%eone so%eone i!h "ecise "ecise o o"" i%"ecise i%"ecise in$o" in$o"%a!ion %a!ion a ao#! o#! s# s#sici sicio#s o#s ac!i*i!i ac!i*i!ies es o" a c"i%e c"i%e !ha! !ha! is e eing ing lanne& lanne& o" !hey elie*e is no! ye! &isco*e"e& y olice an& %o!i*a!e& y "een!ance an& 'e! %o!i*a!e& y "ea"& o" g"a!i!#&e Ano!he" #se$#l !yology is "esen!e& y es!on B L#sha#gh (677) ho &is!ing#ish !he #se$#lness o$ !he in$o"%an! as ell as !he 2#ali!y o$ !hei" in$o"%a!ion asic lea& lea& in$o in$o"%an! "%an! -- #s#ally #s#ally a $"ien& o" ac2#ain!anc ac2#ain!ance e o$ a c" c"i%ina i%inall i!h any n#% n#%e" e" o$ o ossil ssile e %o!i*es %o!i*es ho is %os! %os! #se$#l #se$#l an& ac acc#"a!e c#"a!e a! "e*ealing !he he"eao#!s o" geog"ahical loca!ion o$ e"sons o" "oe"!y a"!ician! a"!ician! in$ in$o"%an! o"%an! -- #s#ally #s#ally a go-e!een go-e!een o" a" a""es!e "es!ee e !#"ne& in$o"% in$o"%an! an! ho hels  olice olice ins!iga!e ins!iga!e a &"#g &"#g s!i s!ing ng o" "e*e"se "e*e"se !"ansac! !"ansac!ion ion o" l#"e a

 

 

s#sec! in!o s#"*eillance co*e"! in$o"% in$o"%an! an! -- # #s#all s#ally y so%eone so%eone &ee insi&e insi&e a c"i% c"i%inal inal o o"gani9 "gani9a!ion a!ion i!h i!h a $a $alling lling o o#! #! o" &i=e"enc &i=e"ence e o$ oi oinion nion an& an& an!s !o "o "o*i&e *i&e so! so! in!elligence o*e" a e"io& o$ !i%e as long as !hei" i&en!i!y is "o!ec!e& an& a leasan! $#!#"e g#a"an!ee& $o" !he% acco%lice- acco%lice-i!ness i!ness in$o"%an! in$o"%an! -- #s#ally #s#ally a co-& co-&e$en&an e$en&an!! in a c" c"i%ina i%inall case ho ag" ag"ees ees !o !es!i$ !es!i$y y $o" !h !he e "os "osec#!ion ec#!ion an&<o" &o one llas! as! #n&e"co* #n&e"co*e" e" oe"a!ion (y eing i"e& $o" so#n&) in "e!#"n !o !he ac'age &eal o$ i%%#ni!y an& !he i!ness "o!ec!ion lan Finally, !he"e is !he ol&es! !yology o$ %o!i*es hich has een a"o#n& $o" so%e 7 yea"s si%ly eca#se !hey ne*e" change (Ga"ney B C"oss 34H7)

     

$ea" -- eo eole le ho $eel !h" !h"ea! ea!ene& ene& y !he !he la la o" y o o!he" !he" c"i c"i%in %inals als ( most police believe this is the best motivation ) "e*enge "e*enge -- eole, li' li'e e e.-i*es e.-i*es,, e. e.-gi"l$ -gi"l$"ien&s "ien&s,, e.-e%loy e.-e%loye"s, e"s, e e.-ass .-associa!es ocia!es,, o" e.-c# e.-c#s!o%e"s s!o%e"s ho  an! an! !o ge! e*en e*en e"*e"s e"*e"si!y i!y -- e eol ole e ho a" a"e e co an anna naes es o" !hi !hin' n' !he !hey1" y1"e e a%es a%es ?on& an an&<o &<o"" hoe !o on one e &ay e. e.ose ose co""# co""#!io !ion n ego -- eol eole e ho nee& nee& !o $ee $eell !hey a"e a"e s%a"! s%a"! :ig :ig sho!s sho!s:: an&< an&<o" o" o#! o#!i! i!!ing !ing !!hos hose e !hey s see ee as in$e" in$e"io" io"s s %oney %oney --  eol eole e ho, ho, li'e li'e %e" %e"cen cena"i a"ies, es, ill ill &o &o ha ha!e*e !e*e"" i! !a !a'e 'es s i$ !h !he e %on %oney ey is ""igh igh!! "e "een! en!anc ance e -- eole eole  ho ho a an! n! !o lea*e lea*e !h !he e o" o"l& l& o$ c" c"i%e i%e  ehin ehin& & !he% an&< an&<o" o" ci! ci!i9e i9ens ns $e $e& & # i! i!h h c"i% c"i%e e P"oe" han&ling o$ in$o"%an!s "e2#i"es "ea"& "ea"& an& con!"ol (Gigh! 6777)+ The"e sho#l& e so%e sys!e% o$ &ea"!%en!al aa"&s o" "ea"&s, #! a! !he sa%e !i%e, an& &e*ian! ac!i*i!y i!h sho#l& no! e con&one&+ "es#l! $"o% eco%ing !oo in$o"%al, !oo #n"o$essional, o" c"i%inal !oo in*ol*e& in "ela!ionshis in$o"%an!s+ The 'eysDisas!"o#s !o s#ccessconse2#ences a! o"'ing an can iin$o"%an!, n$o"%an!, acco"&ing !o Ma&inge" (6777) a"e MOTIVATION J ACCESS J CONTROL+ @o# only ha*e a goo& in$o"%an! i$ all !h"ee o$ !hese a"e "esen!+ The %os! "ecio#s asse! yo# ha*e in MOTIVATION o"'ing an in$o"%an! is !"#s!+ An in$o"%an! %#s! !"#s! !ha! yo# ill alays e !"#e !o yo#" o"&, an& !ha! e*e"yone all !he # $"o% !he lo loes! es! "an'ing olice oce" !o !he chie$ "osec#!o" ill 'ee !hei" i&en!i!y sec"e!+ ITNESS PROTECTION PRO;RAMS   The Uni!e& S!a!es as !he /"s! co#n!"y !o es!alish i!ness "o!ec!ion "og"a%s, an& !hey s!a"!e& in 34K3 (i!h !he O"gani9e& C"i%e Ac! o$ 34K7) an& e"e %o&i/e& y !he Co%"ehensi*e Co%"ehensi*e C"i%e Con!"ol Ac! o$ 345 345 !o co*e" so%e "ela!i*es an& associa!es o$ !he i!nesses+ The la gi*es !he Dea"!%en! $"ee&o% a""ange !he%#s! sec#"i!y o$ i!nesses !hey see /!, #! li$e !he"e a"e !o#gh s!an&a"&s ge!!ing in+ Fi"s!, !he !es!i%ony has !oo$ e#s!ice essen!ial !o !he!ocase, an& $o" !he"e e clea" e*i&enceas!ha! !he i!ness1 o" his<he" $a%ily1s lli$e i$e is$o" in &ange"+ I$ !es!i%ony is a*ailale $"o% so%eone a! less "is', !hen !ha! e"son sho#l& (an& is) #se&+ #se&+ Those ho a"e %os! s#ccess$#lly a&%i!!e& in!o i!ness "o!ec!ion a"e also !he %os! c"e&ile an& "eliale i!nesses+ i!nesses+ I! is *e"y clea" ha! !hey ill say, an& !ha! !hey a"e going !o sho # a! !"ial+ Anyone ho >i>os on !he s!an& &oesn1! ge! any ne i&en!i!y+ i&en!i!y+ The U+S+ A!!o"ney ;ene"al1s oce has !he /nal say in ho ge!s a&%i!!e& in!o !he "og"a%,   The ne i&en!i!y is chosen y !he i!ness an& his<he" $a%ily $a%ily++ Ca"e sho#l& e e. e.e"cise& e"cise& !o no! choose a na%e !ha! is si%ila" !o !he ol& na%e o" one !ha! a $a%ily "esea"che" %igh! co%e # i!h+ The U+S+ Ma"shals Se"*ice !hen !"ies !o /n& a "easonale 8o oo"!#ni!y (co*e") $o" !he i!ness+ In so%e cases, !he go*e"n%en! ays $o" *oca!ional !"aining+ The go*e"n%en! also assis!s (#! &oes no! ay $o") ho#sing+ i!nesses no"%ally "ecei*e ao#! H7,777 in s#sis!ence ay%en!s, #! i$ !hey a"e #ne%loye& an& no! ac!i*ely see'ing e%loy%en!, !he ay%en!s s!o+ No ay%en!s o" "i*ileges (o!he" !han !he "o!ec!e& i&en!i!y) go o#! !o $a%ily %e%e"s o$ !he i!ness (al!ho#gh "a"e ci"c#%s!ances %ay &ic!a!e !ha! haening occasionally)+ No con!ac! is alloe& i!h #n"o!ec!e& $a%ily %e%e"s (o" as! associa!es)+ P"o!ec!e& i!nesses a"e a"e also

 

"ohii!e& $"o% e*e" "e!#"ning !o o" *isi!ing any ci!y !hey li*e& in e$o"e+ In !he case o$ a "o!ec!e& i!ness "e!#"ning !o !he ays o$ c"i%e (an& !he"e1s so%e chance o$ !ha!), !he i!ness1 !"#e i&en!i!y is #s#ally sha"e& i!h local la en$o"ce%en!, #! !he"e1s no a#!o%a!ic o" con!in#ing i%%#ni!y++ ha! #s#ally haens is !ha! a "e-o=en&ing "o!ec!e& i!ness is sen! ac' !o "ison (#n&e" a ne i&en!i!y) an& lace& #n&e" "o!ec!i*e i%%#ni!y c#s!o&y y co""ec!ions ocials+ I$ a "o!ec!e& i!ness co%%i!s a c"i%e, !hen !he *ic!i%s o$ !ha! c"i%e "ecei*e co%ensa!ion o#! o$ a V Vic!i% ic!i% Co%ensa!ion F#n&+   N#%e"s o$ "o!ec!e& i!nesses is classi/e&+ Since !he U+S+ s!a"!e& #sing i!ness "o!ec!ion, no "o!ec!e& i!ness has een 'ille& ye!+ The %o&el has een s#ccess$#lly i%o"!e& !o o!he" co#n!"ies, an& has e.!en&e& $"o% o"gani9e& c"i%e cases !o gang c"i%e, &"#g !"ac'ing, an& !e""o"is% cases+ A#s!"alia, ;e"%any, Colo%ia, an& e*en China ha*e i!ness "o!ec!ion "og"a%s+ The In!e"na!ional C"i%inal Co#"! Co#"! also has a i!ness "o!ec!ion "og"a% $o" #se in c"i%es agains! h#%ani!y cases+ LAS RE;ARDIN; USE OF INFORMANTS   The"e a"e legal "es!"ic!ions on ho $a" la en$o"ce%en! can go iin n 'eeing an in$o"%an!1s ii&en!i!y &en!i!y a sec"e!+ The gene"al "#le is !ha! con/&en!iali!y (as in :con/&en!ial in$o"%an!: o" :aan!:) can e %ain!aine& i$ !he in$o"%an! as #se& in !he ea"ly s!ages o$ a case, say !he "easonale s#sicion s!age, no! !he "oale ca#se s!age, an& %os! &e/ni!ely i$ !he in$o"%an! is no! "e2#i" "e2#i"e& e& !o e a i!ness a! !"ial+ In so%e si!#a!ions, hoe*e", !he enc's Ac! o" co#"! &ecisions in*ol*ing Brady v. Maryland %ay Maryland  %ay e in*o'e&, $o"cing !he "osec#!o" !o a! leas! !#"n o*e" a !"ansc"i! o$ s!a!e%en!s %a&e y !he in$o"%an!+ The e.!"e%e si!#a!ion o#l& "e2#i"e a 8#&ge !o ag"ee !ha! e. e.c#la!o"y c#la!o"y in$o"%a!ion %igh! e $o#n& y "e*ealing !he in$o"%an!1s i&en!i!y (an #nli'ely scena"io)+ Mos! "osec#!o"s, hoe*e", o#l& &"o !he case o" "e&#ce "e&#ce !he cha"ges in hono" o$ a olice  "o%ise !o %ain!ain con/&en!iali!y+ Co#"!s ha*e alays "ecogni9e& olice #se o$ in$o"%an!s a his!o"ical !"a&i!ion i!h no inhe"en! %o"al ea'ness ( U.. v. !ennis 347)+ P"oaly !he %os! signi/can! case in "ecen! yea"s as o#a v. U.. (34HH) U.. (34HH) in hich !he Co#"! consi&e"e&, a%ong o!he" !hings, he!he" a olice in$o"%an! %#s! i&en!i$y !he%sel*es as o"'ing i!h olice #n&e" ce"!ain con&i!ions s#ch as hen hen !hey a"e "ec"#i!ing o!he" in$o"%an!s+ A$!e" all, !he"e is a "ece&en! li'e !his in esionage la+ la+ The oinions in o#a o#a an&  an& a s#se2#en! case (Maine ( Maine v. Moulton 345) Moulton 345) yiel&e& a "e2#i"e%en! !ha! olice a&%onish !hei" in$o"%an!s !o ac! na!#"al an& no! !"y !o &"a o#! any a"!ic#la" inc"i%ina!ing s!a!e%en!s !ha! o#l& cons!i!#!e !he $#nc!ional e2#i*alen! o$ olice 2#es!ioning+ Co#"!s ill no! !ole"a!e !he #se o$ in$o"%an!s $o" en!"a%en!+ Any inc"i%ina!ing s!a!e%en!s %a&e !o an in$o"%an!, in in response to the informant$s remarks, %hich prompted the statement , ill e ina&%issile+ En!"a%en! is &e/ne& as in&#cing a e"son !o co%%i! a c"i%e !hey &i& no! con!e%la!e $o" !he sole #"ose o$ ins!i!#!ing a c"i%inal "osec#!ion agains! !he%+ In&#ce%en! is e"cei*e& y !he Co#"!s as e"sis!en! coe"cion o" !"ic'e"y+ Placing oo"!#ni!y in $"on! o$ !he s#sec! is no! no"%ally en!"a%en!, #! "eea!e&ly "o*i&ing !he% i!h !he sa%e oo"!#ni!y o*e" an& o*e" again co#l& e cons!"#e& as e"sis!en! coe"cion+ Si%ila"ly, laying on a s#sec!1s ea'nesses s#ch s#ch as !hei" *ani!y o" !en&ency !o oas!, co#l& e cons!"#e& as !"ic'e"y i$ i! as eing cons!an!ly "o%!e& y an in$o"%an!+ Ao*e all, yo# sho#l& a*oi& #sing ha! is calle& an :agen! "o*oca!e#": ho is a e"son ho "o*o'es o" inci!es c"i%e, s#ch as so%eone ho #"ges a %o !o "io! o" #"ges so%eone a"%e& an& ang"y !o shoo!+

 

  Ano!he" !hing !o a*oi& is "e$e""ing "e$e""ing !o yo#" in$o"%an!s as :s :secial ecial e%loyees: o" e%loyees o$ any s so"!+ o"!+ This #se& !o e $ai"ly s!an&a"& la en$o"ce%en! "ac!ice # #n!il !he la!e 34H7s an& ea"ly 34K7s, an& a! leas! one co#"! case &i& in*ol*e a s#i! y s#ch an in$o"%an! &e%an&ing ci*il se"*ice ene/!s $o" yea"s o$ se"*ice+ This 'in& o$ si!#a!ion ill %os! li'ely li'ely co%e # hen yo# nee& an in$o"%an! i!h secial s s'ills 'ills (s#ch as $o"eign lang#age "o/ciency o" co%#!e" s'ills), o" hen an e.-in$o"%an! #!s "e*io#s "e*io#s la en$o"ce%en! e.e"ience on !hei" "es#%e+ Mo&e"n la en$o"ce%en! "ac!ice s!"ongly &isco#"ages in$o"%an!s $"o% !hin'ing o$ !he%sel*es as e%loyees+   A /nal  o"& o"& o$ a&*ice is NEVER %ee! i!h an in$o"%an! alone+ So%e ha*e een 'no 'non n !o 'ill !hei" olice han&le", an& o!he"s :se! #: !hei" han&le" $o" assa#l! o" "oe"y, %a'e $alse clai%s ao#! hysical o" se.#al a#se, an& allege !ha! !hey e"e in*ol*e& in a sha'e&on o" e.!o"!e& $o" %oney an&<o" &"#gs+ The ini!ial &e"ie/ng (es!alish%en! o$ %o!i*e an&<o" "egis!"a!ion) o$ an in$o"%an! sho#l& alays !a' !a'e e lace on !he oce"1s !#"$, "e$e"aly in an oce so%ehe"e+ La!e" %ee!ings i!h !he iin$o"%an! n$o"%an! can occ#" in a *ehicle, sa$e ho#se, o" #lic lace+ A "eg#la" sche&#le o$ !elehone an& $ace-!o-$ace con!ac!s ill go a long ay a! con*incing co#"!s !ha! !his is a %anage& in$o"%an! ho $ollos &i"ec!ions an& has so%e c"e&iili!y+ c"e&iili!y+ So !oo, ill co""oo"a!ion es!alish c"e&iil c"e&iili!y i!y++ Police co""oo"a!e, o" &o#le-chec', ha! !he in$o"%an! says in a n#%e" o$ ays       

C"oss-co" C"oss-co""oo"a "oo"a!ion !ion -- !h !he e in$o"%an! in$o"%an!1s 1s s!o"ies s!o"ies a"e c"oss-chec' c"oss-chec'e& e& aga agains! ins! one ano!he" ano!he" $o" co consis! nsis!ency ency o*e" !!i%e i%e ?ac'g" ?ac'g"o#n o#n& & chec chec'in 'ing g -- !he in$o in$o"%a "%an!1 n!1s s &e!ails &e!ails a a"e "e ch chec' ec'e& e& aga agains ins!! co% co%#!e" #!e" &a!a &a!aas ases es O!h O!he" e" in$o"%a in$o"%an!s n!s -- !h !he e in$o"%a in$o"%an!1 n!1s s in$o"%a in$o"%a!io !ion n is *e"i/e& *e"i/e& y ano ano!he" !he" iin$o" n$o"%an %an!1s !1s in in$o" $o"%a! %a!ion ion S#"*eil S#"*eillan lance ce -- !h !he e lac lace e he"e he"e !he !he in$o"%a in$o"%an! n! say says s so% so%e!hi e!hing ng is haen haening ing is #! #! #n& #n&e" e" s#" s#"*ei *eilla llance nce Moni Moni!o !o"i "ing ng ---- !he !he in$o in$o"% "%an an!! is #! #! #n #n&e" &e" s# s#"*e "*eil illa lanc nce e i"e!a i"e!ai ing ng -- !he !he in$o"%a in$o"%an!1 n!1s s !eleho !elehone ne o" " "e%i e%ises ses is is #! #n #n&e" &e" el elec!" ec!"oni onic c s#"* s#"*eil eillan lance ce Un&e"c Un&e"co*e o*e"" oe"a!io oe"a!ions ns -- !he eol eole e o" lace lace !he in$ in$o"% o"%an! an! %e %en!i n!ions ons a" a"e e in/l in/l!"a! !"a!e& e& y #n&e #n&e"co "co*e" *e" oce"s oce"s SURVEILLANCE   S#"*eillance is !he clan&es!ine collec!ion an& analysis o$ in$o"%a!ion ao#! e"sons o" o"gani9a!ions, o" #! ano!he" ay, %e!ho&s o$ a!ching o" lis!ening i!ho#! eing &e!ec!e&+ Mos! s#"*eillance has hysical an& elec!"onic asec!s, an& is "ece&e& "ece&e& y "econnaissance, an& no! in$"e2#en!ly, y s#""e!i!io#s en!"y (!o lan! a %oni!o"ing &e*ice)+ S#"*eillance can e a *al#ale an& essen!ial !ool in co%a!ing a i&e "ange o$ sohis!ica!e& c"i%inal ac!i*i!ies, incl#&ing s#ch o=enses as 'i&naing, ga%ling, na"co!ics, na"co!ics, "os!i!#!ion, an& !e""o"is%+ The"e a"e %any &i=e"en! !yes o$ s#"*eillance+ Pe!e"son an& a%i" (6777), $o" e.a%le, lis! se*en!een !yes a#&io, in$"a<#l!"a-so#n&, sona", "a&io, "a&a", in$"a"e&, *is#al, ae"ial, #l!"a*iolen!, .-"ay, che%ical an& iological, io%e!"ics, ani%als, gene!ic, %agne!ic, c"y!ologic, an& co%#!e"s+ A sho"!e" lis! o#l& incl#&e $o#" gene"al !yes o$ s#"*eillance *is#al0 a#&io, %o*ing, an& con!ac!+ Ge"e is an o#!line o$ !he $o#" !yes $"o% !ha! sho"!e" lis!

 

I+ VISUAL (ALMOST AL[email protected] USES CAMERA) 

A+ F FI IED ED (a' (a'a a STAQ STAQEO EOUT UT OR OR PL PLAN ANT) T) Loc Loca!e a!e yo#"s yo#"sel el$$ in a ano no!he !he"" # #il il&i &ing ng ii$$ o oss ssi ile le,, ala alays ys  e e ale ale !!o o see see !h"o !h"o#g #gh h i in& n&o os s o" & &oo oo" "ay ay (3) SGORT-TERM SGORT-TERM (#se s!o"e$"on! o" aa"!%en!)(6) LON;-TERM (#se "oo$!o o" "en!e& &elling) II+ MOVIN; (a'a TAIL OR SGADO, #ses CONCEALA?LE CAMERA, RADIO AL[email protected])



A+ FOOT FOOT (es (es!! !!o o #se #se lea lea$" $"ogg ogging ing !ea%s !ea%s !o !h" !h"o o o= s#sec! s#sec!,, ala alays ys ca" ca""y "y so% so%e!hi e!hing)? ng)?++ VEGI VEGICLE CLE (o"'s (o"'s es es!! ii$$ co co%i %ine& ne& i! i!h h  #% #%e" e" ee eee") e") III+ AUDIO (a'a IRETAPPIN; IRETAPPIN; OR ELECTRONIC EAVESDROPPIN;)



A+ TEL TELEPG EPGONE ONE (!a a! any any o$ o$  loc loca!i a!ions ons ho#se ho#se,, a"ea, a"ea, %ain, %ain, o"  ays ays o$ cen!" cen!"al al oc oces) es)?+ ?+ PEN RE;IST RE;ISTER ER ("ec ("eco"& o"& o$ o o#!go #!going ing cal calls, ls, "e2 "e2#i" #i"es es les less s "oale ca#se)C+ TRAP-AND-TRACE TRAP-AND-TRACE ("eco"& o$ inco%ing calls, "e2#i"es less "oale ca#se)D+ :?U;;IN;: OF PREMISES (i$ o!h s#"*eillance an& s#""e!i!io#s en!"y a"o*e&)E+ CONSENSUAL (#sing #n&e"co*e" !ac!ic<acco%lice-i!ness) IV+ CONTACT (a'a TRACERS, [email protected] STAINS-->#o"escen! s!ains)   P"ea"a!ion is ' 'ey ey !o a s#ccess$#l s#"*eil s#"*eillance, lance, "ega"&less o$ !ye+ Lea"n all yo# can ao#! yo#" s#8ec! an& !he neigho"hoo&s in hich yo#  ill ill e oe"a!ing in+ hene*e" ossile, !a"ge! in$o"%a!ion sho#l& sho#l& e in&i*i&#ali9e&, incl#&ing ho ho !he associa!es a"e o$ yo#" %ain !a"ge!+ I$ a! all ossile, i! is a goo& i&ea !o %a'e a !ho"o#gh RECONNAISSANCE o$ !he a"eas in hich yo# lan !o con&#c! !he s#"*eillance !o !"y !o so! any 'non c"i%inals ho a"e oe"a!ing in !he a"ea+ Fa%ilia"i9e yo#"sel$ i!h !he geog"ahy o$ !he a"ea+ Lea"n !he na%es an& loca!ions o$ s!"ee!s, alleys an& assage ays+ Ose"*e !"ac con&i!ions+ Fo"% a %en!al ic!#"e o$ he"e *a"io#s #il&ings a"e loca!e&+   E=ec!i*e s#"*eillance ""e2#i"es e2#i"es TEAMORQ+ A clea" chain chain o$ co%%an& %#s! e es!alishe&, an& e*e"y oce" %#s! $#lly #n&e"s!an& ha! is e.ec!e&+ E*e"yone in*ol*e& sho#l& e "ie$e& ao#! !he oe"a!ion an& any secial ha9a"&s o" "ole%s sho#l& e an!icia!e&+ Qnole&ge o$ a s#"*eillance oe"a!ion in "og"ess sho#l& e 'e! sec"e!, #! i! is o$!en #se$#l !o no!i$y o!he" a#!ho"i!ies in !he a"ea so !ha! s#sicio#s e"son "eo"!s a"e a*oi&e& an& !o o" %o"e ongoing la en$o"ce%en! oe"a!ions &o no! #% in!o one ano!he"+ ano!he"+ So%e e.e"!s a"g#e !ha! i! !a'es !he "eso#"ces o$ !el*e oe"a!o"s an& si. *ehicles !o #! one o"&ina"y in&i*i&#al #n&e" e=ec!i*e 6-ho#" hysical s#"*eillance+   Selec! !he es! O?SER O?SERVA VATION TION POST y s!#&ying a la"ge scale %a o$ !he a"ea, co%ine& i!h yo#" "econnaissance+ The %a ill ill allo yo# !o chec' !he angles o$ *ie $"o% &i=e"en! loca!ions+ hen no a&e2#a!e in&oo" ose"*a!ion os! is a*ailale, se! one # o#!&oo"s+ Pe"sonnel %ay ose as "eai"%en, s!"ee! *en&o"s, o" o!he" s#ch eole ho o#l& no! a"o#se s#sicion+ So%e!i%es ca"s an& !"#c's can "o*i&e co*e"+ In&oo" os!s, hoe*e", e"%i! !he %os! #se o$ e2#i%en!, s#ch as so!!ing scoes, ca%e"as, an& "eco"&ing &e*ices+ All e"sonnel a! an ose"*a!ion os! sho#l& ha*e co*e" s!o"ies+

 

  MOVIN; SUR SURVEILLANCE VEILLANCE is co%le. co%le. an& o=e"s !he chance o$ s#""ise+ I! %a'es hea*y &e%an&s on "eso#"ce$#lness+ This is he"e len&ing in!o !he en*i"on%en! is %os! i%o"!an!+ Oce"s sho#l& ca""y e.!"a i!e%s s#ch as a ha!, glasses, an& a "aincoa! !o e"%i! changes o$ aea"ance+ Re%e%e" !o ca""y loose coins an& s%all ills so yo# can ay e.ac! $a"e "a!he" !han ai! $o" change, an& !o ca""y en an& ae" !o lea*e a no!e hen necessa"y+ So%e!i%es, i! ill e necessa"y !o &e*elo a se! o$ signals !ha! can e #se& on !he s!"ee! i!ho#! !iing o= !he s#sec!+ S#ch !hings as ho a nesae" is ca""ie& o" !he ay clo!hing is o"n o"'s ell $o" !his+   On FOOT, a s#sec! can easily sha'e sha'e o= a single $oll $olloe" oe" i!ho#! !oo %#ch !"o#le+ I$ yo# %#s! $ollo a s#8ec! alone, i! is es! !o s!ay close close ehin& an& 'ee !he s#8ec! in sigh! a! all !i%es+ hen $oo! !"ac is ligh!, i! %ay e es! !o c"oss !o !he o!he" si&e o$ !he s!"ee! hich is less li'ely !o a!!"ac! a!!en!ion $"o% !he s#8ec!+ ?e on !he loo'o#! $o" any con$e&e"a!es o$ !he s#8ec! as !hey %ay e a!ching !o see i$ he<she is eing $olloe&+ They %ay also e ai!ing !o a%#sh yo#+ A*oi& !he o*io#s gi*eaays ne*e" ee' o*e" a nesae", ne*e" snea' ee's $"o% a"o#n& a &oo"ay++ A*oi& ca!ching anyo&y1s eye+ ?e con/&en!+ @o#" on %is!a'en elie$ !ha! yo# ha*e een so!!e& is %o"e li'ely !o gi*e yo# aay !han &oo"ay any!hing else+ I$ !he s#8ec! sea's !o yo#, !"ea! hi%<he" as yo# o#l& any o!he" s!"ange" ho &i& !he sa%e !hing+ I$ !hey acc#se yo# o$ $olloing !he%, &eny i! s!"ongly, an& say yo# !hin' !hey ha*e a %en!al "ole%+ I$ yo# a"e e*e" $o"ce& !o aan&on a s#"*eillance, &on1! "e!#"n i%%e&ia!ely !o yo#" oce+ The s#8ec! o" a con$e&e"a!e %ay e $olloing yo#+   In !o-oce" $oo! s#"*eillance, so%e o$ !he es! !ac!ics a"e !o ha*e one oce" in $" $"on! on! o$ !he s#8ec! an& ano!he" $olloing $olloing $"o% ehin&+ To oce"s can also LEAPFRO; a s#sec!+ In !his %e!ho&, one oce" $ollos hile !he o!he" %o*es ell ahea&, #s#ally on !he oosi!e si&eal'+ A! so%e oin!, !he lea& oce" s!os an& ai!s $o" !he s#8ec! !o ca!ch # i!h hi%+ hen !he s#8ec! asses, !he lea& oce" %o*es in ehin& hile !he ac'# oce" %o*es ahea& an& eco%es !he lea& oce"+   VEGICLES #se& $o" s s#"*eillance #"*eillance sho#l& e as #no!"#si*e as ossile+ Ae"ials, co%%#nica!ions gea", an& o!he" e2#i%en! sho#l& no! e *isile+ Gea&ligh!s sho#l& e i"e& sea"a!ely so !he ca" aea"s &i=e"en!ly a! nigh!+ In ci!y !"ac, !he es! lan is !o s!ay one o" !o ca"s ehin& !he s#8ec! an& $a" eno#gh !o !he "igh! so !ha! !he s#8ec! is no! li'ely !o no!ice yo# in a "ea"*ie %i""o"+ In "#"al a"eas, yo# %#s! lie $#"!he" ac' an& 'no !he !e""ain+ To *ehicles can also #se !he lea$ "og !echni2#e+   A !h"ee-oce" o" !h"ee *ehicle !ac!ic is calle& !he A?C %e!ho&+ This allos !he oce"s !o change laces $"o% !i%e !o !i%e, an& c#!s &on on !he "is' o$ losing a s#8ec!+ In $oo! s#"*eillance, oce" C is calle& !he :"o*e": an& al's along !he oosi!e si&e o$ !he s!"ee!+ In *ehicle s#"*eillance, oce" C %igh! e !he lainclo!hes :8#%e": ho ho can ge! o#! o$ !he ca" an& len& in!o !he $oo! en*i"on%en! easily easily++ In i%o"!an! cases he"e i! is o"!h #sing %o"e !han !o ca"s, !he PERIMETER-?O PERIMETER-?O  !echni2#e "o*i&es %a.i%#% sec#"i!y hile %ini%i9ing !he "is' o$ &e!ec!ion+ One ca" $ollos !he s#8ec!, ano!he" lea&s, an& ano!he" !o %ain!ain osi!ions on a"allel "o#!es+ Coo"&ina!ion is han&le& y "a&io+ This o"'s ell in o!h #"an an& "#"al a"eas+   So%e o$ !he !hings a s s#8ec! #8ec! ill &o !o e*a&e yo# incl#&e !"ying !o ge! los! in a c"o&, c"o&, oa"&ing a #s 88#s! #s! as i! is ao#! !o lea*e, an& en!e"ing a #il&ing y one &oo" an& lea*ing y ano!he"+ S%a"!e" s#8ec!s ill go # !o a #ni$o"%e& oce" an& oin! yo# o#! as so%eone ho is $olloing !he%+ I$ !he oce" &elays yo#, !he s#8ec! slis aay0 an& i$ !he oce" le!s yo# go, !he s#8ec! 'nos !ha! yo# a"e an oce" !oo+ Ano!he" !"ic' is hen !he s#8ec! &"os a o"!hless iece o$ sc"a ae" !o see i$ yo# ic' i! #+ A *a"ia!ion on !his is hen !he s#8ec! goes # !o a asse"y, shos hi% o" he" an a&&"ess on a iece o$ ae", an& as's &i"ec!ions+ The s#8ec! !"ies ha"& !o %a'e !his innocen! con!ac! loo' li'e a s#sicio#s

 

!"ansac!ion, an& !hen a!ches !o see i$ !he asse"y a"o#ses s#sicion an&<o" is $olloe&+ Al%os! any e""a!ic eha*io" %ay e an a!!e%! a! e*asion+ The s#8ec! %ay &"i*e &on a one-ay s!"ee! !he "ong ay o" %a'e an illegal U-!#"n !o see i$ yo# a"e &e!e"%ine& eno#gh !o $ollo hi%+ I$ yo#" s#sec! goes in!o a #il&ing !o lose yo#, !a'e o#! so%e > >#o"escen! #o"escen! o&e" an& "# i! on yo#" shoes+ This ay, yo#" ac'# can !"ac' yo# i$ !hey ha*e !o+ O!he"ise, #se yo#" o"!ale "a&io+ A! leas! one oce" sho#l& s!ay in !he loy o$ !he #il&ing, an& o!he" oce"s sho#l& co*e" as %any e.i!s as ossile+ I$ !he s#8ec! !a'es an ele*a!o", a!ch !he in&ica!o"+ he"e !he ca" s!os, !"y !o ic' # !he !"ail on !ha! >oo"+ I$ !he s#sec! chec's in!o a ho!el, ge! !he "oo% n#%e" $"o% !he cle"' an& a "eco"& o$ o#!going hone calls+ I$ !he s#8ec! goes in!o a !hea!e", "ace !"ac', o" all a"', !he lea& oce" sho#l& a!!e%! !o si! "igh! ehin& !he s#8ec!+ The sa%e alies !o #s "i&es, !"olley, o" s#ay+ I$ yo# can1! ge! in !he *ehicle i!h !he s#8ec!, "eco"& !he license n#%e", co%any, lace an& !i%e+ The !a.ica co%any ill !ell yo# !he &es!ina!ion+ I$ !he s#8ec! goes in!o a "es!a#"an!, !"y !o /nish yo#" %eal /"s! an& ay yo#" chec' sho"!ly e$o"e !he s#8ec! lea*es+ I$ yo# s#sec! loses yo# in !hei" on *ehicle, hen yo# ca!ch # i!h !he s#sec! again, $eel !he "a&ia!o" !o see i$ i!1s s!ill a"%+ Also !"y !o "ea& !he %ileage o!h e$o"e an& a$!e" a !"i+ Gelico!e" s#o"! is i&eal $o" !his, #! %any &ea"!%en!s "es!"ic! #sage !o "#n&on si!#a!ions+ I$ yo# lose yo#" s#sec!, &on1! $eel asha%e&+ They ha*e %o"e ays !o lose yo# !han yo# ha*e ays !o 'ee #+ #s! !"y !o /n& !he s#sec! again+ Chec' !he ho%e an& #siness a&&"ess+ Use "e!e.! hone calls !o $a%ily, $"ien&s, associa!es+ S!a!ion an oce" a! !he oin! he"e !he s#sec! as las! seen+   REPORTS a" a"e e esecially i%o"!an! in s#"*eillance s#"*eillance oe"a!ions+ Each %e%e" o$ !he !ea% ill ha*e &i=e"en! $ac!s, an& !hese %#s! e co""ela!e& co""ela!e& !o %a'e a co%le!e "eo"!+ Reo"!s sho#l& e &e!aile&+ Li!!le !hings li'e &isca"&ing a %a!choo' a"e o"!h no!ing+ Al!ho#gh yo#" 8oin! "eo"! sho#l& ha*e &i=e"ences e!een oce"s i"one& o#!, i! is OQ !o ha*e &i=e"ences o$ oinion in !he "eo"! i$ !hey can1! e "econcile&+ I! is e!!e" !o ha*e !oo %#ch in$o"%a!ion !han !o o%i! so%e!hing !ha! %ay e signi/can!+ LAS RE;ARDIN; TGE USE OF SURVEILLANCE B IRETAPPIN;   Co#"!s ha*e alays "ecogni9e& s#"*eillance as sligh!ly #n-A%e"ican, #! e*e" since &lmstead v. U.. (3465), U.. (3465), !hey ha*e een a!!#ne& i!h #lic oinion !ha! !he"e a"e so%e !i%es an& laces he"e "i*acy canno! e e.ec!e&+ This change& i!h 'at( v. U.. in U.. in 34HK !o a e"son-ase& conce!ion o$ "i*acy, %eaning !ha! "i*acy e.is!s hen an& he"e a e"son %a'es "easonale e=o"!s !o %ain!ain i! ("easonale e.ec!a!ion o$ "i*acy &oc!"ine)+ Also in 34HK, !he Co#"! "#le& !ha! !elehone s#"*eillance as !echnically a :sea"ch: an& y 34K6, !he Co#"! as "#ling !ha! e*e"y single hone an& i"e !a nee&e& "io" 8#&icial a"o*al (al!ho#gh !he go*e"n%en! con!in#e& NOT see'ing co#"! o"&e"s hen in!e"na!ional co%%#nica!ions e"e in*ol*e&, on g"o#n&s !ha! cons!i!#!ional "o!ec!ions &i& no! aly in !hese cases)+ In 6773, i!h 'yllo v. U.., U.., !he Co#"! !oo' ano!he" s!e a! "o!ec!ing &o%es!ic "i*acy, y anning olice #se o$ !he"%al i%aging sys!e%s (an& all $#!#"e !echnology o$ !ha! 'in&) on "i*a!e "esi&ences+   )* parte an& parte an& o!he" co#"! o"&e"s a"e a"e "e2#i"e& $o" any an& all %oni!o"ing o$ con*e"sa!ions+ An e* parte o"&e" parte o"&e" is goo& $o" only a sho"! a%o#n! o$ !i%e, an& #s#ally con!ains a %ini%i9ing "e2#i"e%en!, hich %eans !ha! oce"s %#s! cease !hei" ea*es&"oing o" sying as soon as !he c"i%inal ac!i*i!y "ela!e& !o !he in*es!iga!ion s!os+ s!os+ They can !#"n !hei" s#"*eillance ac' on once !he c"i%inal ac!i*i!y s!a"!s # again+ Ti!le III o$ !he 34H5 O%ni#s c"i%e ill s!ill s!an&s as "e2#i"ing "e2#i"ing olice !o e.ha#s! all o!he" o!ions e$o"e e*en !hin'ing ao#! s#"*eillance+ A *a"ie!y o$ o!he" "es!"ic!ions e.is! a! !he cons!i!#!ional, s!a!#!o"y, an& local le*els+   The Ti!le III s!an&a"& is "oale ca#se (a c"i%e has een o" is ao#! !o e co%%i!!e&)+ Ti!le III &i& no! a&e2#a!ely co*e" na!ional sec#"i!y

 

elec!"onic s#"*eillance, hoe*e"+ Tha! as a&&"esse& in !he Fo"eign In!elligence S#"*eillance Ac! o$ 34K5, hich se! # a secial "e*ie co#"! in ashing!on D+C+, an& %a&e !he s!an&a"& a "oo"!ionali!y !es! (!he ene/!s o$ s#"*eillance o#!eigh !he ha"%s)+ C#""en! 8#&icial &oc!"ine also s!"esses !he e.ha#s!ion !es! (s!an&a"& in*es!iga!o"y %e!ho&s ha*e een e.ha#s!e&, $aile&, a"e "easonaly li'ely !o $ail, o" a"e !oo &ange"o#s !o !"y)+ Conce"ns ao#! na!ional sec#"i!y an& &o%es!ic sying gene"ally in*ol*e &isc#ssions o$ !he FISA (34K (34K5) 5) la an& also !he Co%%#nica!ions Assis!ance $o" La En$o"ce%en! Ac! (CALEA)+ (CALEA)+ CALEA is $o" &o%es!ic i"e!as an& F FISA ISA is $o" in!e"na!ional  i"e!as+ i"e!as+ Each la "e2#i"es "e2#i"es a "eo"! !o Cong"ess e*e"y yea", an& each la "e2#i"es a co#"! o"&e" $o" e*e"y !a, al!ho#gh #n&e" FISA !he"e is so%e leeay, incl#&ing !he ossiili!y o$ ge!!ing co#"! o"&e"s "e!"oac!i*ely+   Co%#!e" s#"*eillance has so%e secial "eg#la!ions+ In 345H 345H,, Cong"ess asse& !he Elec!"onics Co%%#nica!ions P"i*acy Ac!, hich "o*i&es o!h ci*il an& c"i%inal enal!ies $o" *iola!ing Ti!le III "o*isions+ S#se2#en! legisla!ion &eal! i!h a"o"ia!ion "e2#es!s y !he F?I (ci"ca 3444) !o ins!all Clie" Chis on all nely %an#$ac!#"e& co%#!e"s, an& !hen !he"e as Go%elan& Sec#"i!y1s 6776 lan !o i%le%en! To!al In$o"%a!ion Aa"eness y scanning all ne!o"'e& co%#!e"s+ The F?I %anage& !o ge! a"o*al in 6777 $o" CARNIVORE, hich consis!s o$ o.es !e%o"a"ily a!!ache& !o !he se"*e"s o$ "ecalci!"an! In!e"ne! Se"*ice P"o*i&e"s (ISPs) hich ca!#"e !he hea&e" in$o"%a!ion $"o% e-%ail a&&"esses o$ in!e"es!+ ;"ea! ?"i!ain1s Reg#la!o"y In*es!iga!i*e Poe"s (RIP) ill allos si%ila" %achines !o e e"%anen!ly a.e& !o ISP se"*e"s, an& !ha! na!ion has also "elie& hea*ily #on /.e& *i&eo s#"*eillance y lan!ing Close& Ci"c#i! Tele*ision ca%e"as (CCTV) a! laces a"o"ia!e $o" %oni!o"ing o#la!ions o$ in!e"es!+ Facial "ecogni!ion sys!e%s a"e o$!en #se& in con8#nc!ion i!h !his !ye o$ s#"*eillance+ Ro*ing i"e!as,  hich hich $ollo !he e"son an& no! !he e2#i%en!, an& is an i%o"!an! consi&e"a!ion in !he age o$ &isosale cell hones an& e-%ail a&&"esses, ha*e een #se& since 3445+ 3445+ The Uni!e& S!a!es Na!ional Sec#"i!y Agency (NSA) is "ohii!e& y la $"o% &o%es!ic s#"*eillance, so i!s ESCGELON "og"a% canno! e #se& !o in!e"ce! elec!"onic !"ans%issions y ci!i9ens #nless $o"eign !"ac is in*ol*e& o" one o$ !he $o"eign na!ions in an e.change ag"ee%en! &oes i!+ +B -roect C/0N1&0)   P"o8ec! Ca"ni*o" Ca"ni*o"e e is a"! o$ a !hi"&-gene"a!ion, online-&e!ec!ion so$!a"e " "og"a% og"a% calle& !he D"agona"e S#i!e, hich hich allos !he ?#"ea# !o "econs!"#c! e%ail %essages, &onloa&e& /les an& e ages+ Gis!o"ically, i! has i!s o"igins in a 344K "og"a% calle& :O%ni*o"e: hich "an on Sola"is so$!a"e an& as inco%a!ile i!h in&os (co%a!iili!y i!h in&os as no! $#lly achie*e& #n!il 3444)+ Al!ho#gh !he F?I has "o*i&e& %ini%al in$o"%a!ion !o !he #lic ao#! D"agona"e, an& only a li!!le %o"e "ega"&ing Ca"ni*o"e, !he sys!e% is asically ha! is "e$e""e& !o as a :ac'e! sni=e",: a "ela!i*ely co%%on !echnology hich e.a%ines o" 1sni=s: ac'e!s o$ &a!a s!"ea%s on a ne!o"'+ P"o8ec! Ca"ni*o"e can only e #!ili9e& y !he agency hen a g"o# o" e"son is s#sec!e& o$ seci/e& $elonies, li'e !e""o"is%, chil& o"nog"ahy o" e.loi!a!ion, esionage, in$o"%a!ion a"$a"e o" $"a#&+ Use o$ Ca"ni*o"e is con!"olle& #n&e" Ti!le III o$ !he Elec!"onic Co%%#nica!ions P"i*acy Ac!, so a co#"! o"&e" is nee&e& !o #!ili9e !he !ool as ell as a#!ho"i9a!ion y a :high-le*el: ocial $"o% !he Dea"!%en! o$ #s!ice e$o"e a local Uni!e& S!a!es A!!o"ney oce can %a'e an alica!ion !o a $e&e"al co#"!+ Goe*e", !he"e a"e :e%e"gency: "o*isions he"ey s#"*eillance is e"%i!!e& !o "ocee& i%%e&ia!ely, hen high-le*el Dea"!%en! o$ #s!ice a#!ho"i9a!ion is o!aine&, so long as a co#"! o"&e" is /le& i!hin 5 ho#"s+ Ca"ni*o"e is no! an in$o"%a!ion-goling %ons!e" !ha! *iola!es "i*acy+ I! only allos la en$o"ce%en! !o "ea& an& "eco"& only !ha! &a!a hich a co#"! o"&e" a#!ho"i9es, ei!he" :!o<$"o%: in$o"%a!ion o" $#ll e%ail con!en!+ I! &oes NOT sea"ch !h"# !he con!en!s o$ e*e"y %essage NOR &oes i! collec! e%ails !ha! con!ain ce"!ain 'eyo"&s li'e li'e :o%: o" :&"#gs+: I! selec!s %essages ase& on c"i!e"ia e."essly se! o#! in a co#"! o"&e"0 e+g+, %essages !"ans%i!!e& !o o" $"o% a seci/c acco#n! o" !o<$"o% a a"!ic#la" #se"+

 

 The In!e"ne! "e"esen!s a *as! :honey o!: o$ in$o"%a!ion $o" !he go*e"n%en!+ I! has een !"ying $o" yea"s !o ge! In!e"ne! sea"ch engine "o*i&e"s (e+g+, @ahoo, ;oogle) !o !#"n o*e" !hei" "eco"&s, on $ai"ly sha'y legal g"o#n&s s#ch as clai%ing !o en$o"ce !he Chil& Online P"o!ec!ion Ac! (COPA) o$ 3445+ 3445+ S#ch "eco"&s o#l& "o*i&e a in&o in!o !he e"sonali!ies o$ #se"s -- ha! !hey an!, ha! !hey &"ea% ao#!, e!c+ Places on !he In!e"ne! he"e a #se" has *isi!e& a"e 'e! 'e! in :coo'ies: !ha! !he sea"ch engines "e!ain a "eco"& o$ o$++ Elec!"onic "i*acy a&*oca!es "eco%%en& #sing so$!a"e s#ch as T as To" o" an&  an& Anony%i9e" hich Anony%i9e" hich hi&e a #se"1s IP a&&"ess (!he s!"ing o$ n#%e"s !ha! i&en!i/es a #se"1s co%#!e") $"o% sea"ch engines y "o#!ing sea"ch "e2#es!s !h"o#gh a %a9e o$ se"*e"s+   As oose& !o In!e"ne! s sying, ying, hen laces o" eole !he%sel*es a"e i"e& $o" so#n&, !his is #s#ally calle& :#gging,: an& i! is an en!i"ely en!i"ely &i=e"en! s#!ye o$ s#"*eillance !han !elehone !as, en "egis!e"s, an& !"a-an&-!"aces+ Fo" e.a%le, s#""e!i!io#s en!"y o" so%e &eg"ee o$ s!eal!h a"e #s#ally in*ol*e&, !he 'in&s o$ !hings e !hin' ao#! in !e"%s o$ esionage+ The U+S+ S#"e%e Co#"! in !alia v. United tates 3 tates  3 U+S+ 65 (34K4) $o#n& no!hing inhe"en!ly "ohii!i*e in #gging a "e%ises as long as o!h !he s#"*eillance an& s#""e!i!io#s en!"y e"e 8#&icially a"o*e&+ i"e!aing is !he co*e"! in!e"ce!ion o$ co%%#nica!ions con!en! $"o% !elehones, !eleg"ahs, $a. %achines, co%#!e"s, age"s, i"eless &e*ices, an& any ci"c#i! o" ac'e! si!ch+ I! is &is!ing#ishale $"o% ea*es&"oing, ano!he" !ye o$ elec!"onic s#"*eillance, hich in*ol*es in!e"ce!ing con*e"sa!ions in "oo%s o" e!een in&i*i&#als in e"son+ In !he Uni!e& S!a!es, a en "egis!e" o" !"a an& !"ace is a#!ho"i9e& y !he Elec!"onic Co%%#nica!ions P"i*acy Ac! o$ 345H 345H an& si%ila" s!a!#!es a! !he s!a!e le*el+ Pen<!"as a"e easy !o o!ain an& &o (i!h !elehone co%any assis!ance), *e"y #se$#l in a c"i%inal in*es!iga!ion, an& only ha*e !o %ee! a lo legal h#"&le, e=ec!i*ely "elega!ing !he "ole o$ !he co#"! !o a %inis!e"ial $#nc!ion+ F#ll i"e!as a"e a#!ho"i9e& y Ti!le III o$ !he O%ni#s C"i%e Con!"ol an& Sa$e S!"ee!s Ac! o$ 34H5 an& a s%alle" n#%e" o$ si%ila" s!a!#!es a! !he s!a!e le*el+ i"e!aing is also a#!ho"i9e& #n&e" !he Fo"eign In!elligence S#"*eillance Ac! o$ 34K5+ Pen "egis!e"s a"e #se& !he %os! $"e2#en!ly, $olloe& y !"a an& !"aces as secon& in $"e2#ency o$ #se, an& $#ll all-con!en! i"e!as as !he leas! $"e2#en!ly $"e2#en!ly #se&+ In !e"%s o$ n#%e"s, !he"e a"e ao#! K,777 en<!"as a yea" an& only ao#! ,77 CALEA<FISA in!e"ce!s+ The USA Pa!"io! Ac! o$ 6773 %a'es all In!e"ne! co%%#nica!ions s#8ec! !o en "egis!e" a#!ho"i!y+ a#!ho"i!y+ A#!ho"i9a!ion $o" a $#ll all-con!en! i"e!a "e2#i"es a " "oo"!ionali!y oo"!ionali!y !es! (!he ene/!s o#!eigh !he ha"%) an& a ona /&e in!elligence #"ose+ A#!ho"i9a!ion $o" a en "egis!e" o" !"a an& !"ace "e2#i"es "ele*ance !o an ongoing in*es!iga!ion, an& in %any cases, a 8#&icial o"&e" is se"*e& on a se"*ice "o*i&e" ins!"#c!ing !he% !o cooe"a!e i!h a#!ho"i!ies+   i"e!a la con!ains i!s on e. e.cl#siona"y cl#siona"y "#le+ Fi"s! Fi"s! o$ all, no  i"e!a i"e!a can e #se& $o" 2#asi-8#&icial o" a&%inis!"a!i*e la #"oses+ This ens#"es !ha! i"e!as "e%ain a !ool o$ las! "eso"! $o" se"io#s c"i%es only, %ainly $elonies o" ac!i*i!ies !ha! "ese%le o"gani9e& c"i%e, esionage, o" !e""o"is%+ Secon&ly, a i"e!a %#s! e "e*iee& an& signe& y!ha! a oli!ically acco#n!ale ocial e$o"eocial1s going on !o a 8#&ge a"o*al+ The case o$any U..alica!ion v. Giordano 3H Giordano$o"  3H U+S+ 7 (34K) %a&e i! e"$ec!ly clea" any "#e" s!a%ing o$ a oli!ical signa!#"e y $o" !hei" assis!an! o#l& "es#l! in s#"ession o$ e*i&ence+ Thi"&ly, !he"e a"e &oc#%en!a!ion an& no!i/ca!ion "e2#i"e%en!s+ #&ges %#s! e ' 'e! e! in$o"%e& o$ "og"ess, an& #on co%le!ion, a $#ll i"e!a "e2#i"es no!i$ying all a"!ies, a! !he !i%e o$ cha"ging i!h an o=ense, !ha! !hei" con*e"sa!ions ha*e een in!e"ce!e&+ A 8#&ge, hoe*e", has &isc"e!ion !o &eci&e he!he" o!he" a"!ies sho#l& e no!i/e&, an& hich o!he" a"!ies sho#l& e no!i/e&+ The "ac!ical e=ec! o$ !his "#le has i%lica!ions $o" !he n#%e" o$ ci*il las#i!s /le& y o!he" a"!ies o*e" !he shoc' a! /n&ing o#! !hey e"e i"e!ae&+ Finally, !he"e a"e e.ec#!ional e.ec#!ional an& %ini%i9a!ion "e2#i"e%en!s+ A! !he !i%e o$ e.ec#!ing a i"e!a o"&e", a  "o$essional e=o"! sho#l& e %a&e y ocials !o %ini%i9e !he in!e"ce!ion o$ i""ele*an! con*e"sa!ion+ This goes eyon& !he s!an&a"& "o!ec!ions a=o"&e& !o "i*ilege& co%%#nica!ion, s#ch as !ha! e!een h#san& an& i$e, an& "e2#i"es ocials !o ens#"e !ha! i""ele*an! o"!ions o$ !he con*e"sa!ion a"e &ele!e& an& !he %os! "ele*an! o"!ions a"e "e!aine&, all i!ho#! eing &one in a %anne" !ha! s#gges!s !he "eco"&ing has een al!e"e& o" $a"ica!e& in any "e8#&icial ay+ ay+ R#les o$ e*i&ence s#8ec! i"e!a in$o"%a!ion !o !he a#!hen!ica!ion "#le an& es! e*i&ence "#le+ Unli'e Unli'e i"e!as, en "egis!e"s an& !"a an& !"aces "e2#i"e no no!ice !o e"sons !ha! !hei" co%%#nica!ions ha*e een in!e"ce!e&+ No" is !he"e any "o*ision $o"

 

 8#&icial s#e"*ision o$ a en "egis!e" in "og"ess+ Also, !he"e is no %ini%i9a!ion "#le+ UNDERCOVER ORQ    The"e a"e ao#! 7 &i=e"en! !yes o$ o"' hich a olice oce" can e assigne& !o, an& al%os! all o$ !he% "ely "ely o" &een& #on !he a#!ho"i!y o$  a #ni$o"%+ One o$ !he %os! no!ale e.ce!ions !o #ni$o"%e& &#!y is #n&e"co*e" o"', a"g#aly !he %os! "ole%a!ic "ole%a!ic a"ea o$ la en$o"ce%en!+ Un&e"co*e" o"' is one o$ !he %os! #ni2#e in*es!iga!i*e !echni2#es a*ailale !o la en$o"ce%en!+ The !heo"y ehin& no! ea"ing a #ni$o"% is !ha! i! "e%o*es any i%e&i%en!s !o ac2#i"ing in$o"%a!ion+ I!1s a"! o$ !he sa%e in!elligence-ga!he"ing $#nc!ion as s#"*eillance, ea*es&"oing, #se o$ in$o"%an!s, an& esionage+ I! !yically in*ol*es an ass#%e& i&en!i!y $o" a &e/ne& an& consi&e"ale a%o#n! o$ !i%e+ Un&e"co*e" o"' "e2#i"es sec"ecy+ sec"ecy+ I! allos !he olice oce" !o ci"c#la!e in a"eas he"e !he olice a"e no! o"&ina"ily elco%e+   The 8o o$ !he #n&e"co*e" oce" is !o :%a'e :%a'e cases:, in o!he" o"&s, !o ga!he" eno#gh in$o"%a!ion !o enale a s#ccess$#l "osec#!ion+ The #"ose is no! so %#ch !o o!ain "oo$ o$ c"i%inal in!en!, !he e"sonali!ies o" li$es!yles in*ol*e&, #! !o o!ain hysical e*i&ence (y #"chasing &"#gs o" o!he" con!"aan&) an& eco%e !he co%lainan! see'ing an a""es! a""an!+ Once !he a""an! is se"*e&, !he oce"1s i&en!i!y is #s#ally "e*eale&+ O"&ina"ily, a la"ge n#%e" o$ a""es!s a"e %a&e eca#se !he #n&e"co*e" oce" has %a.i%i9 %a.i%i9e& e& !hei" con!ac!s as %#ch as ossile (e+g+ i!h !he &"#g o" c"i%e "ing) on !hei" on o" y :con*e"!ing: one o" %o"e o$ !hei" con!ac!s in!o in$o"%an!s+ A !yical !h"ee-%on!h oe"a!ion %ay yiel& as %any as H7 a""es! a""an!s+  TGE [email protected] [email protected] STA;ES   Al!ho#gh !he"e a"e %any  ays ays !o ini!ia!e !he #n&e"co*e" ""ole, ole, a !yical a!!e"n is !o "ing !he #n&e"co*e" oce" iin n as an ac2#ain!ance, #siness associa!e, o" gi"l$"ien&<oy$"ien& o$ an in$o"%an!, an& !hen !o &is!ance !he%sel*es $"o% !ha! in$o"%an!+ Once i!1s clea" !o all !he a"!ies in*ol*e& !ha! !he oce" is single again, ano!he" #n&e"co*e" oce" is "o#gh! in as !he oy$"ien& o" gi"l$"ien& o$ !he /"s! #n&e"co*e" oce" oce"++ The 'ey he"e is %anaging !he in$o"%an! eca#se yo# &on1! gene"ally an! !o !a'e e.!"a "is's i!h an in$o"%an! a"o#n& hen yo# &on1! "eally nee& !he%+ The i&eal !a"ge!s a"e !he :ig: &eale"s o" c"i%inals, #! %os! oce"s #s#all #s#ally y s!a"! y going a$!e" !he :s%all: $"ies, acc#%#la!ing s#sec!s an& case %a!e"ial as !hey go+ The olice s#e"*iso", an& so%e!i%es, !he "osec#!o" %a'e a &ecision ea"ly on ao#! he!he" eno#gh :%i&-le*el: o" :ig: cases ha*e een %a&e so !ha! !he oe"a!ion can e !e"%ina!e&+ In %os! cases, !he c"i!ical $ac!o" is con!in#e& sa$e!y o$ !he oce"(s)+  T  T"aining "aining o$ !he #n&e"co*e" oce" is so%e!i%es no!hing %o"e !han on-!he-8o !"aining+ A&&i!ional !"aining %ay in*ol*e a $e sho"! ho#"s o$ ins!"#c!ion on ho !o i&en!i$y &"#gs, con!"aan&, !e"%inology, an& "ices+ So%e!i%es, a "e$"eshe" co#"se in c"i%inal la an& "oce&#"e "oce&#"e is a&&e&+ A sys!e% is #s#ally #! in lace $o" !he oce" !o !#"n o*e" e*i&ence on a sys!e%a!ic asis o" en %asse a! one !i%e+  TGE MIDDLE STA;ES STA;ES   Un&e"co*e" oce"s #s#ally a"e alloe& !o c"ea!e !hei" on co*e" s!o"ies, an& &een&ing #on !he !ye o$ c"i%e in*ol*e& (&"#gs, g#ns, con!"aan&, ga%ling, :s#*e"si*e: g"o#s), ill e*en!#ally nee& %o"e s#o"! $"o% !he &ea"!%en!+ The nee& %ay a"ise, $o" e.a%le, !o c"ea!e $alse &oc#%en!s o" co%#!e" "eco"&s $o" !he #n&e"co*e" oce"+ oce"+ This is no! o"&ina"ily &one i!h %ino" cases+ The nee& %ay also a"ise $o" c"ea!ing *a"io#s 'in& o$ se!# si!#a!ions in hich !he #n&e"co*e" oce" :"o*es: !hei" c"i%inali!y o" loyal!y y engaging in a s!age& sho&on

 

i!h "eg#la" olice oce"s o" o!he" "#sh i!h !he la+ la+ The s!age& enco#n!e" %ay also e an oo"!#ni!y !o s#e"*ise !he #n&e"co*e" oce"+ Since s#e"*ision an& con!in#e& s#"*eillance eco%es %o"e &ic#l! as !he oe"a!ion "og"esses o*e" !i%e, #n&e"co*e" oce"s a"e o$!en :#s!e&: !o gi*e a "og"ess "eo"! an& le! %anage%en! 'no i$ !hey nee& %o"e o" less s#e"*ision+  TGE LATE STA;ES STA;ES   O$ all !he 'in&s o$ olice assign%en!s, #n&e"co*e" o"' #!s yo# a! %os! "is' o$ co" co""#!ing "#!ing yo#" in!eg"i!y in!eg"i!y++ A! so%e oin!, !he #n&e"co*e" oce" %ay egin !o lose e"sec!i*e, an& eco%e e%o!ionally a!!ache& !o !his !ye o$ o"'+ This &oes no! %ean !hey eco%e e%o!ionally a!!ache& !o !he s#sec!s, an& eco%e %o"e c"i%inal !han co+ I! si%ly %eans !ha! !he &ea"!%en! o*e"all %#s! !hin' ao#! %ain!aining i!s in!eg"i!y y calling in anyone ho has een &oing !his 'in& o$ o"' so !ha! !hey can sal*age !hei" #se$#lness as a "eg#la" olice oce"+ oce"+ Dange" an& !e%!a!ion lay "oles in !he la!e s!ages+ Un&e"co*e" oce"s !en& !o ge! a"anoi& a$!e" a hile, $eeling li'e !hey ha*e :co: "i!!en ac"oss ac"oss !hei" $o"ehea&s+ They ill egin !o $eel insec#"e an& an.io#s ao#! ""eg#la" eg#la" o"' an& con!in#e& e%loy%en! i!h !he &ea"!%en!+ They ill o$!en e a%a9e& an& as!onishe& as so%e o$ !he !hings !hey ha*e e.e"ience& an& !he &ange"s !hey ha*e $ace&+ Us#ally, !hey1"e ca""ying !hei" on g#n a! !his oin! $o" e"sonal "o!ec!ion o" !hey1*e a""ange& so%e o!he" $o"% o$ !hei" on "i*a!e s#"*eillance an& "o!ec!ion $"o% "eal o" i%agine& &ange"s+ I$ a"anoia &e*elos, !he #n&e"co*e" oce" %ay s!a"! ha*ing &"ea%s ao#! engaging in c"i%inal ac!i*i!y+ ac!i*i!y+ They can1! hel i! eca#se s#conscio#sly !hey s#cc#% !o !e%!a!ion+ The "ole% is o"se in &"#g cases eca#se !he oce" %ay no! e #nale !o &ecline !he inhala!ion, inges!ion, o" in8ec!ion o$ con!"olle& s#s!ances, al!ho#gh y s!"ic! olicy, !hey sho#l& %a'e e*e"y a!!e%! !o a*oi& illegal cons#%!ion, e*en alcohol, &#"ing !he oe"a!ion+ Goe*e", i$ cons#%!ion occ#"s, one "#ns !he "is' o$ a&&ic!ion, an& !he "eal ossiil ossiili!y i!y o$ ne#"ological changes+ Anyone ho engages in a"!ician!-ose"*a!ion "#ns !he "is' o$ :going na!i*e:, an& i! !a'es !"e%en&o#s sel$-&isciline !o 'ee $"o% &oing so+ Many oce"s en& !hei" #n&e"co*e" assign%en! hen !hey $eel :#"ne& o#!: o" e."ess !hei" /"s! conce"n ao#! eing :%a&e: o" e."ess a &esi"e !o s#"$ace an& eco%e a "eg#la" oce"+ S#e"*iso"s no"%ally &o no! !"y !o !al' anyone in!o s!aying #n&e"co*e", al!ho#gh !he"e is so%e conce"n $o" he!he" o" no! !he a"o"ia!e cases ha*e een %a&e+ Mos! &ea"!%en!s allo a :&e"ie/ng: e"io& o$ !i%e !o hel !he% a&8#s! a$!e" co%ing o= #n&e"co*e" assign%en!s+ SELECTION OF UNDERCOVER OFFICERS   In %any cases, !he #n&e"co*e" oce" is ne !o !he &ea"!%en!, an& so%e!hing ao#! !hei" :loo's :loo's:: %a'es s#e"*iso"s s#e"*iso"s $eel !hey a"e "igh! $o" !he  8o+ They %ay ha*e een in!e"*iee& an& i&en!i/e& $o" s#ch &#!y hile a!!en&ing !he !"aining aca&e%y o" hile ai!ing on so%e ci*il se"*ice eligiili!y lis!, #! gene"ally, !hey /nish # a "oo'ie yea" o" !o /"s! /"s! as a "eg#la" oce" oce"++ In "a"e cases, an alican! is so" so"n n in sec"e!ly y !he Chie$ an& Pe"sonnel Oce" !he /"s! &ay on !he 8o+ The &ea"!%en! %ay ha*e so%e secial nee& in an ongoing oe"a!ion $o" so%eone ho /!s !he :%ol&: an& a ne "ec"#i! %ay /! !he ill+ Rec"#i!s $"o% o#! o$ !on a"e so%e!i%es "e$e""e&, "e$e""e&, as a"e e!hnic-loo'ing "ec"#i!s i!h $o"eign $o"eign lang#age s'ills an& !he occasional $e%ale+ The "eason $o" #sing ne, ine.e"ience& oce"s is !ha! yo# %ay no! an! so%eone ho !hin's, loo's, an& ac!s li'e a co, esecially $o" in!e"nal a=ai"s a=ai"s oe"a!ions o" ce"!ain oli!ical !a"ge!s+ @o# an! so%eone ho has s!ill go! a ci*ilian %in&se!+ GO TO AVOID ?EIN; :MADE:

 

  #s! as so%e oce"s ha*e !he #ncanny aili!y !o so! c"i%inals, so%e c"i%inals ha*e !he #ncanny aili!y !o so! #n&e"co*e" o oce"s+ ce"s+ To !hings !ha! ill a#!o%a!ically !i any &"#g &eale" o= a"e (3) $a%ilia" c#s!o%e"s in!"o&#cing s!"ange"s ho an! !o #y &"#gs0 an& (6) s%all-!i%e #se"s ho s#&&enly an! !o #y la"ge 2#an!i!ies+ The i&ea ehin& "e2#es!s $o" la"ge 2#an!i!ies is !o $o"ce &eale"s !o con!ac! !hei" :connec!ion+: Mos! "o$essional c"i%inals a"e 'eenly 'eenly aa"e an& "ea&y $o" a!!e%!s !o :>i: !he% o*e" in!o eco%ing in$o"%an!s+ They ill e "ea"e& $o" !his i!h ail %oney se! asi&e an& a laye" on "e!aine" !o se! # an en!"a%en! &e$ense, g#a"an!ees o$ i%%#ni!y, an&<o" a "i!!en sala"y ag"ee%en!+ In!e"%e&ia!e le*el c"i%inals a"e also !he g"o# leas! li'ely li'ely !o ha*e a&&ic!ions o$ !hei" on+ To le*el c"i%inals ha"&ly e*e" %a'e %is %is!a'es+ !a'es+ The i%o"!ance o$ co%ining #n&e"co*e" !es!i%ony i!h !ae "eco"&ings o" *i&eo "eco"&ings canno! e o*e"s!a!e&, esecially hen &ealing i!h a sohis!ica!e& c"i%inal+   A! !he o!he" en& o$ !he sec!"#%, yo# ha*e e"e!"a!o"s ho a"e easily ca#gh! # in a :"e*e"se: oe"a!ion he"e !he olice oce" is !he one selling !he "o&#c!+ Pe"s ho #s#ally ge! ca#gh! # in !hese 'in& o$ #n&e"co*e" oe"a!ions a"e !he s%all $"ies o" :connec!ions: ho %a'e s!#i& %is!a'es+ Al%os! alays, !he %is!a' %is!a'es es a"e %a&e hile in!o.ica!e&, high, o" $a!ig#e& in so%e  ay ay++ Goe*e", e*en a! !his le*el, !he c"i%inal %ay %a'e so%e a!!e%! !o :*e"i$y: so%eone1s s!o"y, o" chec' !he #n&e"co*e" oce"1s co*e" co*e" o#!+ To o$ !he %os! co%%on !hings chec'e& o#! a"e $a%ily his!o"y an& e%loy%en!0 !hese, an& e"has, an ac2#ain!ance o" !o+ Go !he #n&e"co*e" oce" &"esses an& ha! !hey &"i*e a"e also $ac!o"s+ The clo!hing o$ &"#g a&&ic!s alays &oesn1! /! "igh! eca#se !hey1"e cons!an!ly losing o" gaining eigh!+ ?y con!"as!, %os! #n&e"co*e" oce"s can1! si%#la!e !his a"!ic#la" :/!: o$ clo!hing0 !hey1ll only loo' sloy an& ca""y !he%sel*es li'e !hey ha*e !hei" :s!"ee! #ni$o"%: on+ Sc"aggly ea"&s !ha! loo' "ecen!ly g"on also a"e a &ea& gi*eaay+ The ca"s !hey &"i*e a"e also !oo ell-%ain!aine&+ A &oe a&&ic!1s ca" #s#ally has !h"ee &i=e"en! !yes o$ !i"es, a #nch a ha%#"ge" "ae"s all o*e" !he insi&e, an& sc"ea%ing 'i&s in !he ac'+ The"e1s also !he ay #n&e"co*e" oce"s gi*e !he%sel*es aay i!h !hei" eyes+ Thei" eyes a"e !oo $#ll o$ li$e, an& !hey see% !o ea" s#nglasses all !he !i%e+ A &oe a&&ic!, on !he o!he" han&, ill o$!en s!#o"nly o" %asochis!ically lin& !he%sel*es y no! ea"ing s#nglasses e*en hen !hey sho#l&, an& !hei" eyes ill loo' s#n'en, li' li'e e !hey ha*en1! sle! in &ays+ O!he" co*e"-loing %o*es incl#&e eing !oo s#"e ao#! !he "ice0 cons!an!ly %a'ing hone calls &#"ing a &eal0 eing !oo o*e"eage" !o #y0 o=e"ing se. in e.change $o" &oing #siness0 eing !oo $a%ilia"0 an& eing !oo #n$a%ilia"+ INTERNET RESOURCESAssocia!ion RESOURCESAssocia!ion o$ Un&e"co*e" Oce"sCali$o"nia Oce"s Cali$o"nia Na"co!ic Oce"s Associa!ion Associa!ionCo%e!i!i*e Co%e!i!i*e In!elligence an& In!e"ne! In$o"%a!ion ;a! he"ing ;a!he" ingCons!i!#!ional Cons!i!#!ional ;#i&e !o Using Cell%a!e In$o"%an!s;o*e"n%en!ali!y In$o"%an!s ;o*e"n%en!ali!y an& !he a" on Te""o" F?I P"o8ec! Ca"ni*o"e  Ca"ni*o"e  Go%e Page o$ P"o$+ ;a"y Ma".Go Ma". Go !o So! Un&e "co*e" Agen!s Age n!sIn!e"na!ional In!e"na!ional Associa!ion o$ La En$o"ce%en! In!elligence Analys!s Analys!sIn!e"na!ional In!e"na!ional Associa!ion o$ Un&e"co*e" Oce" Oc e"s sIn*es!iga!i*e Reso#"ces an& P#lic Reco"&s on !he In!e"ne! In!e"ne!La La o$ Un&e"co*e" Un&e"co *e" Oe"a!ions Oe" a!ions Na!ional Associa!ion o$ Legal In*es!iga!o"s In*es!iga!o"sPolice Police Use o$ Con/&en!ial Con/&en !ial In$o"%an!s In$o"% an!s T  T"ace "ace Anyo&y Online (Ne!-T"ace Peole Sea"ch)Un&e"co*e" Sea"ch)Un&e"co*e" School Oe"a!ions Oe"a!ionsUse Use o$ In$o"%an!s in F?I Do%es!ic In!elligence Oe"a!ions (Coin!el"o)

Sponsor Documents

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on INBA.INFO

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close