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An army (from Latin arma ―arms, weapons‖ via Old French armée, ―armed‖ (feminine)), in the broadest sense, is the land-based military branch, service branch or armed service of a nation or state. It may also include other branches of the military such as the air force via means of  aviation corps. Within a national military force, the word army may also mean a field army an army composed of full-time career soldiers who 'stand over', in other words, who do not disband during times of peace. They differ from army reserves who are activated only during such times as war or natural disasters.

In several countries, the army is officially called the Land Army to differentiate it from an air force called the Air Army, Army, notably France. In such countries, the word "army" on its own retains its connotation of a land force in common usage. The current largest army in the world, by number of active troops, is the People's Liberation Army of  of China China with 2,250,000 active troops and 800,000 reserve personnel followed by the Indian Army with 1,325,000 active troops and 2,142,821 reserve personnel.

By convention, irregular military is understood in contrast to regular armies which grew slowly from personal bodyguards or elite militia. Regular in this case refers to standardized doctrines, uniforms, organizations, etc. Regular military can also refer to full-time status, versus Reserve or part-time personnel. Other distinctions may separate statutory forces (established under laws such as the National Defence Act, from de facto "non-statutory" forces such as some guerrilla and revolutionary armies. Armies may also be expeditionary (designed for overseas or international deployment) or fencible (designed for  –  or restricted to  –  homeland defence).


A navy (sometimes called a maritime force) is the branch of a nation's armed forc es principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake- or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions. It includes anything conducted by surface ships, amphibious ships, submarines, and seaborne aviation, as well as ancillary support, communications, training, and other fields; recent developments have included space-related operations. The strategic offensive role of a navy is projection of force into areas beyond a country's shores (for example, to protect sea-lanes, ferry troops, or attack other navies, ports, or shore installations). The strategic defensive purpose of a navy is to frustrate seaborne projection-of-force by enemies. The strategic task of the navy also may incorporate nuclear deterrence by use of nuclear missiles.

First attested in English c.1600, the word "navy" came via Old F rench navie, "fleet of ships", from the Latin navigium, "a vessel, a ship, bark, boat" ,[1] from navis, "ship"


and from Sanskrit " "

( Nav), "ship".[3][





link ][citation

needed ]




shenav or ashenav (swim) from avesta (old Iranian language) "sna" in Sanskrit "sna" ( The word "naval" came from Latin navalis, "pertaining to ship";[4][

dead link ]

cf. Greek  "ναῦς"

(naus), "ship",[5] "ναύτης" (nautes), "seaman, sailor" [6] (the earliest attested reference to the word is [7]

the Mycenaean Greek  na-u-do-mo, "shipbuilders", written in Linear B syllabic script ).


An air force, also known in some countries as an air army, is

in the broadest sense, the

national military organization that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nation's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army, navy or other branch. Typically, air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air, carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions and providing support to surface forces.

The term "air force" may also refer to a tactical air force or numbered air force, which is an operational formation either within a national air force or comprising several air components from allied nations. Air forces typically consist of a combination of  fighters, bombers, helicopters, transport planes and other aircraft.

Many air forces are also responsible for operations of military space, interc ontinental ballistic




communications equipment. Some air forces may command and control other air defence assets such as antiaircraft artillery, surface-toair missiles, or anti-ballistic missile warning networks





nations, principally Russia, the former Soviet Union and countries who modelled their militaries along Soviet lines, have an Air Defence Force which is organizationally separate from their air force. In addition to pilots, air forces have ground support staff who support the aircrew. In a similar manner to civilian airlines, there are supporting ground crew as pilots cannot fly without the assistance of other personnel such as engineers, loadmasters, fuel technicians and mechanics. However, some supporting personnel such as airfield defence troops, weapons engineers and air intelligence staff do not have equivalent roles in civilian organizations.


The Arab world (Arabic 

 al- ālam ʿ     


l- arabī  ) ʿ     

consists of the Arabic-speaking states,



populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.


The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast.[1] It has a combined population of  around 400 million people, with over half under 25 years of age . [2]The sentiment of  Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire. The Arab League was formed in 1945 to represent the interests of the Arabs, and especially to pursue the political unification of the Arab countries, a project known as Pan-Arabism.[3][4] The popular protests throughout the Arab world of late 2010 to early 2011 are directed against the governments and the associated political corruption, paired with the demand for more economic opportunity.

The term "Arab world" is usually rejected by those living in the region who do




Arabs, like non-Semitic people such as the Berbers and Kurds, as it implies the entire region is

Arab in its identity, population, and

origin, whereas the original homeland of the

Arabs is the Arabian Peninsula. The term

is also rejected by some indigenous Semitic



as the


Sephardim, Mizrahim, Chaldeans, Assyrians, and Syriacs, as they pre-date Arabs in places such as Iraq, Israel/Palestine, and Syria. Coptic Egyptians and other Egyptians also define themselves as Egyptian and not Arab.







knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teachin g of  vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training





improving one's capability, capacity, and performance. It forms the core of  apprenticeships




backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market[


recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to

maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Job Training and Development Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: "training and development". There are also additional services available online for those who wish to receive training above and beyond that which is offered by their employers. Some examples of these services include career counseling, skill assessment, and supportive services [2]. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job: 

On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation [

citation needed ]

as most effective for vocational work.

Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations  — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Offthe-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective

[citation needed ]

in inculcating concepts and ideas.

A more recent development in job training is the On the Job Training Plan or OJT Plan. According to the United States Department of the Interior, a proper OJT plan should include: An overview of the subjects to be covered, the number of hours the training is expected to take, an estimated completion date, and a method by which the training will be evaluated .


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