Assessment of Nigeria States and Local Governments, E-Government Readiness
AKANMU, MUFTAH AEA!"
#$a%ter Five &'( #oncl)sions and Recommendations
This chapter shall discuss the outcome of the study as analysed in the previous chapter and make some useful recommendations.
&'* #ritical Anal+sis
Every government main duty to the society is the services rendered to the public, which actually is a measure of performance for all governments. Thus Thu s all go gover vernme nments nts str strive ive to mak make e ser servic vices es ava availa ilable ble,, eff effec ectiv tive e and readily accessible and to keep up with the pace or even leapfrog ahead of develope deve loped d natio nations. ns. Espe Especiall cially y sinc since e the inte internet rnet boom of 1990s 1990s,, when governments like businesses have been trying to use technology to foster a better relationship with their constituents. owever unlike e!business or e!commerce e!government should and must be accessible to all citi"ens #$ook, %000&. 'any 'a ny of the the e( e(is isti ting ng stud studie ies s on e! e!go gove vern rnme ment nt es espe peci cial ally ly gl glob obal al e! government usually used the federal ) central government website for their assessment and result is usually clouded in believing that same standards operate all over the country. *hile not incorrect assessment of the fed feder eral al go gover vernme nment nt e!g e!gove overnm rnmen entt pra practi ctices ces is us usual ually ly not a tru true e reflec ref lectio tion n of the co count untrie ries+ s+ ava availa ilabil bility ity,, sophi sophisti sticat cation ion and usa usage ge of e! government. The main purpose of this study thus is to assess the present state sta te of ele electr ctroni onic c gov govern ernmen mentt #e #e!go !gover vernme nment& nt& in iger igeria ia Sta State tes s and -oca -o call
go gove verrnm nme ent nts, s,
pre prepa parredn dne ess
State tates s
an and d
ove o vern rnme ment nts s in th the e im impl plem emen enta tati tion on of el elec ectr tron onic ic go gove vern rnme ment nt,, th the e awaren awa reness ess and readi readine ness ss of peo people ple of iger igeria ia to emb embrac race e el elect ectro ronic nic government.
&'*'* State of #T in Nigeria state and local government governments s
The Th e stra strate tegi gic c ob ob/e /ect ctiv ive e of e! e!go gove vern rnan ance ce is to su supp ppor ortt an and d si simp mpli lify fy governance for all parties government, citi"ens and businesses. The use
of $Ts can connect all three parties and support processes and activities. n other words, in e!governance electronic means support and stimulate good governance. Therefore the ob/ectives of e!governance are similar to the ob/ectives of good governance #2ackus %001&. 3nswering the second research 4uestion what level of access do potential users have to a computer with nternet and other communication technologies5 3 lot of improvement has been noted in the information and telecommunication technology infrastructure in igeria especially following the deregulation of telec telecomm ommuni unicat cation ion ind indust ustry ry and the S' rev revolu olutio tion n of %00 %001. 1. The deregulation attracted many players into the industry that ultimately turn telecommunication telecommun ication business around positively in igeria. The S' growth became e(ponential, popularising voice communication in igeria #3we, %006&. -ittle wonder 90 7 of respondents in this study have access to mobi mo bile le ph phon one. e. Th The e sa same me ca cann nnot ot be sa said id of ot othe herr info inform rmat atio ion n an and d telecommunication technology infrastructures only 8 7 and 19 7 of respon res ponde dents nts hav have e ac acces cess s to per person sonal al com comput puter er and dig digita itall tel telev evisi ision on respectively. The average cost of a new laptop in igeria today is about 100,000 100,0 00 aira which is appr appro(ima o(imately tely :;00. This is a far cry for aver average age igerians whose monthly take home is less than %<,000 aira, it thus means me ans man many y iger igerian ians s st still ill see per person sonal al com comput puter er as lu( lu(ury ury and not necessity. Therefore a class digital divide is created and many will still have to depend on used personal computer usually assembled by e(pert or imported from abroad. igeria federal government has set %01% as the year for full digital broadcasting in igeria. 3ll broadcasting stations are e(pected to switch from analogue broadcasting to digital television which takes less broadcast space that can be employed for new features such as interactivity and greater choice of channels. This e(plains why only few of the respo responde ndents nts act actual ually ly cla claime imed d to hav have e ac acces cess s to dig digita itall tel telev evisi ision. on. 3part from the digital divide created as a result of poverty. The e(plosive growth of mobile telephone took its turn on land phone, which is as good as dead in igeria today especially land phone from government own telecommunication telecommun ication company.
$hart <.1 =i(ed and 'obile phone Services
-ifted from igeria communication $ommission $ommissions s &'*' nternet access
The internet described as the technology of the century #'bambo and $ron $r on/e /e %0 %00% 0%&,& &,& an and d as a ve very ry im impo port rtan antt ph phas ase e in th the e de deve velo lopm pmen entt process, an indispensable and essentially important tool to bridge the gap between the developed nations and the under developed ) developing nations #offman, %000 'ansell and *hen, 1996 gwainmbi, %000&. The internet is believed to be the most powerful and preferred mode of in inte tera ract ctio ion n
de dellive ivery
e!g !go ove verrnm nme ent nt..
aro roun und d
th the e
wo worl rld d
governments have been investing lots of resources to boost their internet access for effective management process. 3ccording to 3we #%006& the boom that follows the industry deregulation in igeria has increased not only on ly co comm mmun unic icat atio ion n se serv rvic ices es bu butt ha has s se seen en gr grow owth th in th the e nu numb mber er of internet providers, open more opportunities for e!business and seen a furt furth her in inc cre reas ase e in the nu numb mbe er of inte intern rne et us use ers rs.. < 7 of stu tudy dy respondent were connected to the internet while only 8< 7 have no internet connection. This is a clear improvement from when there are few internet user same time ten years ago. Table <.1 shows the internet usage statistics for igeria compare to >nited ?ingdom year %000 to 'arch %009.
Table <.1 nternet usage statistic igeria and >nited ?ingdom @opulation
0 SourceB nternet world stats %009
t can be seen that the internet penetration in igeria is still very low with .6 7 population penetration as against A0 7 in the >.?. n 3merica an average of A07 use the internet at least once on daily basis #e!govt10&, whereas only 887 of survey respondents in igeria are using the internet daily. 3s much as ;0 7 of survey respondents may not use the internet for a period one month or a year. t is also worth noting that half of those that will use the internet on daily basis will be students. Cnly 9 7 of survey respondents used used internet from home and 1% 7 from many places including home, work place ) school or internet cafe. *ith an average cost of :;00 e4uivalent of a personal computer, it will take a while for there to be a significant improvement in this $hart there by creating a further digital divide. 'inimum wage in igeria stands at less than :;0, meaning that it will take at least 10 months savings for an average worker to get a new laptop. 3s rightly pointed out by 3we #%006& cybercafD once unfamiliar word has now become so popular in igeria. 'any will still have to use internet cafe which tough is getting cheaper everyday everyday but by no means can compare to comfort and security attached to working from home. The main reason for using the internet is not in any way different from the reason many intern int ernet et use users rs all over the world world use uses s the inte interne rnet. t. -ess -ess tha than n 1 7 of
survey respondents have used the internet for transaction while over 0 7 did use the internet for e!mail and information search. 3ccording to a research by artner #%001&, survey showed that many Europeans will use the internet more for information than for interaction.
n an attempt to answer the last research 4uestion what are the general perception of e! government and willingness of government workers and stud studen ents ts to em embr brac ace e e! go gove vern rnme ment nt5 5 t wa was s foun found d th that at many of th the e respondents that took part in this study #867& have no prior knowledge of e!government. e!government. 3bout 807 have very little knowledge of it while /ust 80 7 have good ) very good knowledge of e!government. 3ll efforts on e! government are tantamount to nothing if not put to use. $iti"en on their part will only use the e!government if they know it e(ist and the benefit clearly outlined. n the same vein nearly two third of respondents who have hav e use used d int intern ernet et hav have e ne never ver vis visite ited d a gov gover ernme nment nt we websi bsite. te. St Study udy shows that half of all 3mericans and three!4uarters of 3merican nternet users use rs alr alread eady y hav have e int inter eract acted ed wit with h a gov gover ernme nment nt we websi bsite te # #art art and Teet Te eter er %0 %008 08&. &. Th Ther ere e is /ust /ust a sl slig ight ht di diff ffer eren ence ce in wh whic ich h go gove vern rnme ment nt website is visited, five out of ten have visited state website, more than ; out of ten have visited federal website another one have visited both federal and state government websites while only one claimed to have visite vis ited d we websi bsite te bel belon ongin ging g to local local gov govern ernmen ments. ts. Cn Cnly ly a few #18 #187& 7& of respondents respondent s who have visited government websites described the website vis visite ited
unsa sati tisf sfac acttory ry,,
ab abo out
#8% 8%7 7&
consi side dere red d
some mew what hat
satisf sat isfact actor ory, y, wh while ile ove overr ha half lf of surve survey y res respon ponde dents nts bel belie ieved ved we websi bsites tes visited were satisfactory or even very satisfactory. n a st stu udy car arri rie ed out by ar artt an and d Tee Teete terr #%0 #%008 08&& abo bout ut 8 7 of 3mericans 3mer icans woul would d use e!g e!gover overnmen nmentt prima primarily rily for obta obtaining ining info informati rmation on and an d se seco cond ndar aril ily y fo forr tr tran ansa sact ctio iona nall pu purp rpos oses es.. n this this st stud udy y 68 7 of
respondents+ answers certainly revolve around information search while /ust 7 indicated using governmen governmentt website for business transaction. Even for those who have not visited government site, information search is stil stilll the the ma ma/o /orr reas reason on they they wo woul uld d li like ke to us use e e! e!go gove vern rnme ment nt for for surpassing any other reasons interactivity or transactions. $onsidering the level of accessibility, it is again not surprising that many #;87& will still sti ll int inter eract act wit with h gov gover ernme nment nt in perso person n rat rather her tha than n any oth other er me means ans availa ava ilable ble to the them m ma mail il #80 #807& 7& tel teleph ephone one #%A7& #%A7&.. To an answe swerr the fir first st research 4uestion what are the current ways of interactions between government and citi"ens5 t can be concluded that many people in igeria will prefer to do their business face to face i.e. lots are still not ready to go online but in line. E!government has changed the way governments operate and interact with citi"ens and vice versa, however there are still a lot of challenges and obstacles that have to be overcome in other to ma(imise the full benefit of e!g e!gove overnm rnmen entt in dev develo elopin ping g co count untrie ries. s. 3c 3ccor cordin ding g to res respon ponses ses of survey respondents in this study internet is the foremost challenges to e! government in igeria, this is closely followed by lack of facilities, in! ade4uate power supply and lack of skills. Cther ma/or challenges include lack of e!government e(istence, lack of government initiatives. These two chal ch alle len nge ges s ar are e clos losely rela latted as many any ar are e st stil illl no nott awar are e of e! government e(istence even when they do. The cost of having and using e!go e! gove vern rnme ment nt,, la lack ck of comm common on stan standa dard rd,, se secu curi rity ty co conc ncer erns ns la lack ck of interest and lack of support score high among the many challenges of e! government in igeria. This is in support of 'ansell and *ehn #1996& assertion that most basic information and telecommunication technology infrastructure is still unavailable, limited, irregular, unreliable and)or very costly.F n spite of all the odds and challenges many of the respondents still tend to favour e!government, on a scale of 1!<, G1+ being Gever+ and G<+ G'ost likely+ nearly half of respondents will positively recommend ) champion
the course of e!government, about 8 out of ten are neutral on scale G8+ while less are on the negative side of the scale with 11 7 Gever+. The second part of this dissertation looked at the internet for all local gover gov ernme nments nts and sta states tes we websi bsites tes for scr scruti utiny. ny. Thi This s is an att attem empt pt to answer the third research 4uestion how much e!government presence is available in igeria States and -ocal governments5 3 total of 8 states and AA; local governments were searched using the oogle and Hahoo search engine. t was found that no local government has any website posted online, %< of the 8 states searched have website posted. This is a clear indication of digital divide among the three arms of government in igeria. The states websites were scrutinised for certain feature that will assist in determining how much e!government is already being practised. 'any states were rated high or medium in the news features however most of the states websites ob/ectives were limited to digitalisation and a platform to div divulg ulge e all sta state te ach achiev ievem emen ents ts and his histor tory. y. 'a/ 'a/ori ority ty of ne news ws ite item, m, publications are all about party or government agenda and of little or no benefits to citi"ens. The Th e foru forum m gr grou oup p me mean antt to de dete term rmin ine e ho how w mu much ch th the e go gove vern rnme ment nt is engag en gaging ing wit with h the cit citi"e i"ens ns thr throug ough h for forum um ) cha chatt roo room, m, op opini inion on po polls lls,, feedbacks etc showed that only four states were rated high or medium. This means that many governments are still not ready to interact with the citi"ens, or know their opinion on pressing issues. ear e arly ly ha half lf of th the e stat states es ha have ve li link nks s to othe otherr go gove vern rnme ment nts s an and d no non! n! gove go vern rnme ment ntal al or orga gani nisa sati tion on site sites s as we well ll as me medi dia a file files. s. 3gai 3gain n the the ob/ectives is not different as what were seen in study of news features, most if not all the media files were basically political party ) government activities related.
3ll features in the e!service group have close relations to e!government, in true sense of it only one state #Cndo state& showed any serious effort to implement e!government with some evidence of two way interactions. 3bout a 4uarter of the states were rated high or medium this is however possible because of marks score in other features in this group. t is very disheartening that no single local government in igeria has a web presence, 11 of the 8 states in igeria has no web presence, %% states can be classed under emerging stage with a web page and )or an official website even though some showed possibility of downloading. % states can be said to be in enhance stage characterised by a convincing downlo dow nloadi ading ng da data ta bas base e and uni unidir direc ectio tional nal int intera eracti ction on.. Cnl Cnly y on one e sta state te #Cndo state& with a bidirectional interaction can be classed in interactive stage, the state showed a clear understanding of e!government it is the only state with an online payment facility that will facilitate e!government delivery. 3 total of seven hundred and seventy four #AA;& local governments were search for website presence on net. o single local government has a website presence. presence. Thirty si( #8& states of the federation were also search for website presence, eleven yielded no result, twenty two have website presen pre sence ce but wit with h bas basic ic and lim limite ited d inf inform ormati ation on,, two sta states tes sho showe wed d evidence of enhanced website presence #unidirectional interaction&, while only one state can be said to be in the interactive stage with two ways interaction. &' #oncl)sions
3s po poin inte ted d ou outt in ea earl rlie ierr ch chap apte ter, r, e!go e!gove vern rnme ment nt is no nott /ust /ust ab abou outt compu co mputer ter or mov moving ing ser servic vices es off offlin line e to onl online ine,, nor is it e!p e!poli olitic tics. s. E! government has gone beyond /ust electronic information provision to full service delivery. There is a clear leadership failure at the political and manage man ageria riall lev level. el. 'an 'any y of the pol politi itical cal leader leaders s sti still ll can cannot not se see e the e! government vision or have deliberately ignore e!government in favour of
pro/ects that leaves opportunities for corrupt practises. 'any states e! government pro/ects do not have any services that meet citi"ens+ needs or wants rather such pro/ects have been turn to /ust another political tool and a platform to sing praises of government of the day particularly the state governors with the sole aim of perpetuating themselves in power #a governme gove rnment!ce nt!centric ntric,, as agai against nst citi citi"en) "en)busi business ness!cen !centric tric focu focus&. s&. t is of little surprise that in most of the sites studied, a large percentage of the archives, publications, publications, images ) pictures, audio and video galleries, are all about the ruling party and the chief e(ecutive officers of the states. 3t the managerial level, often the Gchief e!governm e!government ent officers+ or Ge!government initia ini tiator tor++ are no nott 4ua 4ualif lifie ied d and wit witho hout ut any for formid midabl able e e!g e!gove overnm rnmen entt strategy, resource planning or proper coordination. Even though a lot of progress has been recorded in the area of $T, this unfo un fort rtun unat atel ely y is no nott en enou ough gh,, as po poin inte ted d ou outt in di diff ffer eren entt st stud udie ies s by #'bam #'b ambo, bo, 199 199 >[email protected]
, >[email protected]
, %001 %001 addad addad and 'ac 'ac-e -eod, od, 199 1999& 9& tha thatt $ $T T infrastructures, power supply, telephone lines, are inade4uate, unreliable and costly, while illiteracy and lack of direction on the part of government are wid widesp espre read ad po posin sing g a big thr threa eatt to int inter ernet net gro growth wth in de devel velopi oping ng countrie coun tries. s. overnme overnment nt initi initiative atives s and e!g e!gover overnmen nmentt awar awarenes eness s amon among g citi"ens is not enough. The fact that 907 of adults own a mobile phone does not necessarily e4uate to high cell phone usage lots still cannot afford the charges of making calls, hence their mobile phone are usually for rec recei eivin ving g cal calls. ls. Eve Even n tho though ugh ig igeri eria a rec recent ently ly ce celeb lebrat rated ed te ten n ye year ar uninterrupted democracy, the enabling environment is still characterised by political instabilities and lack of direction resulting in lack of continuity, and poor maintenance culture in many of the states. There is still the ever present problem of electricity, many rural areas are still not connected to the pow power er gri grid, d, man many y pri primar mary y and se secon condar dary y sc scho hools ols es espe pecia cially lly day school are still not with electricity. *hen there is electricity connection, the supply is never stable this ultimately is creating a further divide by increasing access cost when internet cafes have to result to alternative means of power supply.
t ca can n thus thus be co conc nclu lude ded d th that at e! e!go gove vern rnme ment nt in i ige geri ria a ha has s be bee en unsu un succ cces essf sful ul an and d wi will ll re re4u 4uir ire e an ho hone nest st po poli liti tica call wi will ll an and d inte integr grat ated ed approach that will be centrally controlled and monitored to achieve the many benefit of e!government.
E!government has positively changed the way governments operate and interact with citi"ens and vice versa. =or e!government to be successful in igeria and for igerians to reap the benefits of e!government the e! government pro/ect needs to be separated from partisan politics. -eaders must mu st en ensur sure e tha thatt e! e!gov govern ernmen mentt vis vision ion is int integr egrate ated d int into o the po polit litica icall programmes with the sole ob/ective of delivering good governance. Ieveloping a viable e!government pro/ect should not be left in the hands of state or local governments igeria has definitely definitely not reach such stage. Jather Jat her e!g e!gove overnm rnment ent pro pro/ec /ectt sho should uld be ce centr ntrali alise sed, d, mai mainta ntaine ined d and control by an independent body set up by the federal government and if possible a single web portal should be encouraged. E!government is a very ver y e(p e(pen ensiv sive e pro pro/ec /ect t decen decentra tralis lisati ation on eve even n tho though ugh cla claime imed d to be ine(pensive will only encourage corruption, lack of common standard and wastages. There is need for more efforts from government to promote acceptance of $T technology, incentivi"e citi"ens ) businesses to use the e!government and increase online presence. *hy do people still have to travel miles, waste their time and money to get a result of e(amination or result of an interview etc in this computer ) information age5 The benefits need to be e(plained to people, efforts should be made to compensate those those who are soci so cial ally ly and and ec econ onom omic ical ally ly di divi vide ded d as a resu result lt of cl clas ass, s, ed educ ucat atio ion, n, geographic location, culture, religion, age, gender and any other divides. overnments in igeria need to e(ploit the fact that 907 of respondents have ha ve ac acce cess ss to mo mobi bile le ph phon one, e, th ther ere e sh shou ould ld be co conc ncer erte ted d ef effo fort rts s to
ma(imise this situation by modelling an e!government that citi"ens will benefit from using their mobile phone as obtained in @hilippines, Solomon s sla land nd an and d Sr Srii -a -ank nka a wh wher ere e ci citi ti"e "ens ns us use e sh shor ortt wa wave ve ra radi dio os #J #Jad adio io browsing& to interact with government. This will benefit a lot of citi"ens who cannot afford the price of internet ready personal compute computer. r. ov ove ernme rnmen nt shoul uld d tak ake e bold steps to re redu duce ce th the e pr priice of $T infrastructures computers, other hardware and software. nternet access should be improved through provision of free public internet kiosks, at stra strate tegi gic c pl plac aces es.. Th This is sh shou ould ld be fo foll llow owed ed by ad ade4 e4ua uate te tr trai aini ning ng for for supp su ppli lier ers s an and d us user ers s of e!go e!gove vern rnme ment nt,, ci citi ti"e "ens ns ne need ed to be tr trai aine ned d to improve their computer skills enough for them to be able to take on e! government. The government must set target for citi"ens to use the e! government, some services can be moved completely online e.g. workers can be encourage to submit their annual appraisal form online students should submit assignment online etc. There should be reward for best practices of e!government as obtain in 3ustralia where there are the e! 3ward 3w ards s for e( e(cel celle lence nce in e! e!gov gover ernme nment nt tha thatt rew reward ards s ou outst tstand anding ing e! gover gov ernme nment nt pra practi ctises ses.. n >.? >.?.. the pow power er of inf inform ormati ation on tas taskfo kforce rce,, on behalf of government is supporting a government scheme GThe Show >s a 2etter *ay+ with a :%0,000 competitive price tag meant to support any ideas that will improve public communication means Tell us what youKd build with public information and we could help fund your ideaLF became their slogan. &'.'* /erformance Meas)re
Gf you can measure it, you can manage it+. @erformance measure measures s should be in inst stit itut uted ed to ga gaug uge e
su succ cces esse ses s
of e! e!go gove vern rnme ment nt pr pro/ o/e ect cts. s.
@erformance measures measures ensure that best practises are easily identified and challe cha llenge nges s 4ui 4uickl ckly y not noted ed an and d co contr ntroll olled ed.. Thr Throu ough gh thi this s mo most st fre fre4ue 4uent nt activities can be determined and improved upon while unused services give way for more sought for ones. There is also cost effectiveness
&'.' /rotot+%in /rotot+%ing g
@rotot @ro totypi yping ng kno known wn to be ve very ry eff effect ective ive in e! e!gov gover ernme nment nt de devel velopm opment ent involves creating a small, active technological pro/ect ahead of a large scale implementation it can either be disposable prototyping when the pro/ect is not intended to be kept or incremental when the pro/ect is meant to metamorphose to a larger scale pro/ect #eeks, %001&. 'any states in igeria are still far away from adopting a comprehensive e!government it is therefore recommended that countries should start from a small pro/ect and progress to a larger one after perfecting the system. &'.'. 0enc$mar1ing
2enc 2e nchm hmar arki king ng in invo volv lves es co comp mpar arin ing g accl ac clai aime med d be best st prac practi tice ces. s.
pr pra act ctic ices es or pr proc oce ess to wi wide dely ly
t is a stan standa dard rd by wh whic ich h e! e!go gove vern rnme ment nt
pro/ pr o/ec ects ts ca can n be /udg /udged ed or comp compar ared ed to be best st pr prac acti tice ce e! e!go gove vern rnme ment nt pro/ pr o/ec ects ts.. t af affo ford rds s ev ever ery y go gove vern rnme ment nt de deli live veri ring ng e! e!go gove vern rnme ment nt th the e opportunity to assess their current position in terms of electronic service delivery of citi"ens needs this enables government to focus on improving strategic applications and processes and introduce significant reforms and process reengineering when necessary. The Th e 2e 2enc nchm hmar arki king ng pr proc oces ess s shou should ld be a co cont ntin inuo uous us on one e wi with th four four recognised phases •
Study tudyin ing g
e!go !gove vern rnm ment
pr pro o/ect /ects s
an and d
id ide ent ntif ifyi ying ng
Study the e!government processes and operations of best practice coun co untr trie ies s
e! e!go gove vern rnme ment nt
>S >S3 3,
Si Sing ngap apor ore, e,
$a $ana nada da,,
>n >nit ited ed
?ingdom, 3ustralia etc. •
=ormulate and implement strategy that will ensure bridging the gap
t is therefore recommended that all states adopting e!government must ensu en sure re ther there e is a resu result lt or orie ient nted ed pe perf rfor orma manc nce e me meas asur ures es,, se serv rvic ice e imp im pro rove vem ment
pr pro ogr gram amm mes,
ris isk k
as ass sess ssme men nts ts,,
pr pro o/ect /ect
4u 4ua ali litty
mana ma nage geme ment nt as we well ll as in info form rmat atio ion n te tech chno nolo logy gy au audi ditt an and d co cont ntro roll measures instituted. &'.'2 ")tso)rcing
The more technical aspect of e!government e!government like online payment should be outsou out sourc rced ed to e( e(per pert. t. The nat nation ional al bod bodies ies sh shoul ould d tak take e an int integ egrat rated ed appr ap proa oach ch an and d wo work rk to toge geth ther er wi with th al alll st stak akeh ehol olde ders rs Th The e a ati tion onal al e! overnment Strategies #eSt&, The 2ureau of @ublic Service Jeforms #[email protected]
& task with the responsibility of ensuring the effective and efficient implementation of the public service reforms of the =ederal overnment of igeria. The ationa ationall nformat nformation ion Techno Technology logy Ievel Ievelopme opment nt 3ge 3gency ncy #TI # TI3&, 3&, tas task k wit with h the respo respons nsibi ibilit lity y of bri bringi nging ng gov gover ernme nment nt and its serv se rvic ice es cl clos oser er to the the pe peop ople le thro throug ugh h T T,, an and d en entr trus uste ted d wi with th the the implementation of the ational T policy, which, has been mandated to supervise the management of the country code Top -evel Iomain as a nati na tion onal al reso resour urce ce.. 3ll 3ll thes these e ar are e na nati tion onal al ag agen enci cies es that that sh sho ould uld be stren str ength gthen en and hav have e the their ir /ur /urisd isdict iction ion e( e(ten tended ded to inc includ lude e all tie tiers rs of government in order to scale up whatever is achieved, bridge the digital gap ga p be been en cr crea eate ted d in th the e th thre ree e arms arms of go gove vern rnme ment nt in ig iger eria ia an and d maintain sustainability. =urthe =ur therr stu studie dies s on sub sub/e /ect ct mat matte terr are recom recomme mende nded d fut future ure stu studie dies s should attempt to compare the states e!government pro/ects and find the political, social and economic implication of implementing e!government pro/ects in igeria.