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Dissertation - quality in supply chain management

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Chapter 1 Introduction

The period of 1990s was an era in which the globalization of markets intensified the competition among the firms. firms. Due to this reason,the companies were forced to expand expand their  business to new geographies to gain competitive advantage from new markets, availability availabilit y of raw material, access to a large pool of trained professionals,etc. This change in turn led the companies to integrate the contribution of different partners and suppliers to aide their  business which was possible owing to their capabilities in producing and delivering high quality products which in turn made them an important part of final product. Thus,the supply chain began to take center stage as a means to respond rapidly,correctly and profitably to market demands. If all relevant information is accessible to any relevant company,every company in the supply chain has the ability to help optimize the entire supply chain rather than to sub-optimize based on a local interest.This will lead to better-planned overall  production and distribution,which can cut costs and give a more attractive final product, leading to the better sales and better overall results for the companies involved.Incorporating SCM successfully leads to a new kind of competition on the global market,where competition is no longer of the company-versus-company form but rather it takes on a supply-chainversus-supply-chain form. Maintaining the performance of the whole supply chain at a high level requires integration,cooperation, communication,participation,and sharing of information between supply chain partners. Across worldwide,most of the organizations use supply chain, therefore, the various number of studies have been conducted in order to explore this vast field. Moreover,its interlinking with the quality management perspective is still very limited. It is worth mentioning here that, in the present competitive world, the dynamics of market does not allow any deviation in quality of end product. Therefore, the importance of quality management is universally espoused by the researchers and practicing managers working in this area. It has been found by the authors that the focused approaches in evaluating quality management issues within inter and intra organization supply chain contexts are indispensable. During review of the open literature available in this area,the authors


investigated that in present scenario there are number of quality related issues (either at the suppliers end or at manufacturers end) in supply chain management which needs immediate attention of the researchers. In this context the quality of supply chain itself can provide a  path breaking solution at different levels of supply chain management.Moreover, this concept may be applied to address the problems such as product recall,delay in delivery of products etc. regardless of type of industry.

1.1 What is supply chain?? Supply chain management  (SCM) is the management of the flow of goods. It includes

management of the flow as wells as storage of raw materials,work-in-process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Interconnected or interlinked networks, channels and node businesses are involved in the provision of products and services required by end customers in a supply chain. Supply chain management has been defined as the "design, planning,execution, control,and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating net value,building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing the supply and demand and also measuring the  performance globally.”  globally.”  SCM draws heavily from the areas of operations management,logistics, procurement,and information technology,and strives for an integrated approach. In the current buyer‟s market with global hard competition, enterprises cannot respond rapidly to the customers „demand through „demand through traditional operation mechanism. Thereupon,a new kind of operation mechanism, i.e.supply chain management, emerges as the times require. In supply chain circumstance,the majority of enterprises,especially some excellent enterprises, rely on their suppliers more and more heavily. The product quality and manufacturing  process of suppliers has great effect on the quality of final product of core enterprise. It means that the emphasis of research and practice of TQM has transferred from enterprise focus to supply chain focus.Not only the high quality of product and service but also the high level of quality control of the whole supply chain system ensures the competition advance. The essence of competition advantages are not pursuing product quality and process quality simply,but the performance of the whole supply chain system. Therefore,the establishment of quality management system of supply chain based on the management ideas of ISO9000 will



 promote the involvement of all the members and facilitate the implement of quality qualit y control of the whole supply chain system. “A supply chain consists of all stages involved, indirectly or directly, in fulfilling a customer ‟s  ‟s  request. The supply chain not only includes the suppliers and manufacturer,but also transporters,warehouses, transporters,warehouses, retailers, and customers themselves” (Chopra  (Chopra   and Meindl, 2006). Customers have so much of the choice now-a-days from an enormous and vast field of competitors that delays in supply mean delays for the customers who are probably unwilling to wait when they can obtain the same or similar substitute product elsewhere. Based on the above mentioned facts it is highly observed that the supply chain management has become very important and critical aspect to the profit making of any organization. But, the quality management issues have also impacted the performance of supply chain in one way or other. Therefore, one must understand the meaning of quality management.

1.2 What is quality? The quality definition as specified by Joseph Juran, “Quality is the fitness of use” i.e. it is the value of the goods and services as perceived by the supplier,producer and customer. The measure also pertains to the degree to which products and services conform to specifications, requirements and standards at an acceptable price. Some of the definitions of Quality,  provided by quality gurus gurus are as follows:


Quality is conformance to requirements (CROSBY).


The efficient production of the quality that the market expects (DEMING)


Quality is what the customer says it is (FEIGENBAUM)


Quality is the loss that a product costs to the society after being shipped to the

customer (TAGUCHI)


The totality of features and characteristics of a product or services that bear on

its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs of the customers (ASQC)


A quality system is the agreed on companywide and plant wide operating

work structure, documented in effective, integrated, technical and managerial 3


 procedures for guiding the coordinated actions of people, the machines, or the information of company in the best and most practical ways to assume customer quality satisfaction and economical costs of quality. (FEIGENBAUM)


BSI EN ISO 9001: 2000 defines the term “quality” as the “degree to which a

set of inherent characteristics (distinguishing features) fulfils requirements” (BSI, 2000) whereas Crosby (Oakland, (Oa kland, 1993) described quality as “conformance to customer requirements”. Quality has taken on a whole new level of utmost importance for the today‟s  today‟s  manufacturers. However, maintaining a high-quality level in a global, complex supply chain has become increasingly challenging. The brand damage that has resulted over the past few years due to low quality products has been substantial. With steadily increasing quality standards, the IT systems supporting production processes must be capable of continuous improvement. As new processes are created, they must also be managed and measured, causing a ripple effect of challenges.  No longer is it sufficient to simply simpl y identify a quality problem. It must now also be possible to take immediate corrective action to contain any potential fallout from a quality issue. With today's tight production schedules and Just-In-Time inventory strategies, a quality problem along the supply chain left unchecked can quickly balloon into a very serious issue - one that significantly impacts brand integrity and the bottom line. For example, in the automotive industry, the complexity involved in making an automobile is unprecedented. Vehicles have a vast range of options from Bluetooth capabilities, to automatic parking and voice-based commands. The software required to activate these new options is highly staggering, with base models requiring up to one-and-ahalf million lines of code per vehicle. Naturally, this involves coordinating with multiple suppliers for the procurement of highly specific electronic components. This added complexity has made quality control more difficult. Increasing the no. of quality checks along the supply chain may improve product quality. However, it could also slow down production, resulting in increased labor as well as inventory costs in an environment that calls for higher speed and efficiency.



Chapter 2 Literature review  As competition in the 1990s intensified and markets became global, so did the challenges associated with getting a product and service to the right place at the right time at the lowest cost. Organizations began to realize that it is not enough to improve efficiencies within an organization, but their whole supply chain has to be made competitive. The understanding and practicing of supply chain management (SCM) has become an essential prerequisite for staying competitive in the global race and for enhancing profitably Effective supply chain management (SCM) has become a potentially valuable way of securing competitive advantage and improving organizational performance since competition is no longer between organizations, but among supply chains. This research conceptualizes and develops five dimensions of SCM practice (strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship, level of information sharing, quality of information sharing, and postponement) and tests the relationships between SCM practices, competitive advantage, and organizational  performance. The results indicate that higher levels of SCM practice can lead to enhanced competitive advantage and improved organizational performance. Also, competitive advantage can have a direct, positive impact on organizational organizati onal performance. Ashwini Sharma, Dixit Garg and Ashish Agarwal(2012) in their paper have attempted to study the existing literature on supply chain management and quality management. They found out that out of the papers reviewed, only 8% of them have focused on quality management in supply chain. Here the main focus was the improvement in quality of product and not on the supply chain quality. Acc to them, “Supply chain management is key focus area in the current scenario of global competitive market. In this market the company or organization having the quality in supply chain will only survive. It has been observed that quality in supply chain has not been focused in the literature related to supply chain management.””  management. Supply chain management is an approach to integrating suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and retailers, such that products are produced and distributed at the right quantities, to the right location, at the right time, with the mutual goals of minimizing system wide costs and satisfying customer service servic e requirements (Simchi-Levi et al., 2008).



In other words, supply chain management synchronizes a firm's processes with its suppliers and customers with the goal of matching the materials, services and information with customer demand (Krajewski et al., 2010). Critical supply chain processes include  product design, production, delivery, support, and supplier-customer relationships. To succeed in today's environment, managers need to integrate their goals effectively to compete in the dynamic, global economy and focus on the final customer as the driver for improvements. Supply chains compete based upon cost, quality, time and responsiveness. Supply chain improvement tools include, but are not limited to process improvement i mprovement tools of flow charting, flow diagrams, service blueprints, process analysis, process re-engineering, link charts, multiactivity analysis, backward chaining, and Gantt charts. Quality is one of the most important factors for companies in their relationship between suppliers and customers. In fact, quality is so critical that today's executives question whether their companies should be participating in global sourcing as many global suppliers are not able to meet quality requirements (Brockwell, 2011). Positive relationships between quality management and supply chain management exist. To begin, quality management improvements in reducing process variation directly impact on several supply chain  performance measures. With continuous quality management improvement, defects and therefore, process and production variation, are reduced. In turn, as consistency in the supply chain improves due to the variation reduction, cycle times are reduced (the time between two successive replenishments) and on-time delivery improves (Flynn & Flynn, 2005). SCM was initially related to the management of inventory within a supply chain. This concept was later broadened to include the management of all functions within a supply chain. According to Chopra and Meindl (2001), supply chain management involves the management of flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total  profitability”. This definition suggests that SCM involves management of the flows of    products, information, and funds upstream and downstream in the supply chain. SCM also entails making decisions about the locations of production facilities, which products to  produce, how to produce them, and finally, how to distribute these products (Sila et al., 2006). In the quest for competitive advantage,  organizations, consultants, practitioners and academics have attempted to organize and integrate supply chain management (SCM) concepts and practices. The areas of Supply chain which has been researched predominantly 6


includes Supply chain Performance, Supply chain collaboration, Supply chain Integration, Supply chain agility, Supply chain Network design etc. As a result, it has been discovered that this subject requires radical thinking because the vastness of the topics is neither well defined nor easily implemented. SCM involves challenges such as developing trust and collaboration among supply chain partners, identifying best practices that can facilitate supply chain process alignment and integration, and successfully implementing the latest collaborative information systems and Internet technologies that drive efficiencies,  performance, and quality throughout the supply chain (Carol J. Robinson, Manoj K. Malhotra, 2005). Empirical quality management (QM) research has evolved over the last 20 years. Empirical research has defined and measured QM practices (e.g., Ahire et al., 1996; Flynn et al., 1994; Nair, 2006; Saraph et al., 1989; Sila and Ebrahimpour, 2005). Numerous studies have investigated the relationships among QM practices and various aspects of a firm‟s  performance (e.g., Adam Adam et al., 1997; Ahire and O‟Shaughnessy, 1998; Dow et al., 1999; Kaynak, 2003; Samson and Terziovski, 1999). As competition moves beyond a single firm into the supply network of multi firms, focus is shifting from management of internal  practices alone to the management of external firms. Quality managers must integrate their firms‟ practices with those of customers and suppliers (e.g., Flynn and Flynn, 2005; Kannan and Tan, 2005; Robinson and Malhotra, 2005; Sila et al., 2006). Integrating QM and supply chain management (SCM) will be important for future competitiveness (Flynn and Flynn, 2005; Matthews, 2006; Robinson and Malhotra, 2005). Quality assurance in supply chain management related to different kinds of goods and services have been researched by (Manning et al. 2007; V. John Peters 1999; Braglia and Petroni, 2000; Sroufe and Curkovic, 2008) in order to align the supply chain with quality assurance to derive the models which can be adopted by the organisations to assure the quality.



Chapter 3 Research methodology

3.1 Objective:

1.  To find out the functions of supply chain management which are practiced in the company to maintain the quality in supply chain 2.  To find out the areas of supply chain that are currently being focused by the companies to enhance the quality in supply chain 3.  To find out the areas of improvement.

3.2 Research design:

To carry out the research, exploratory research design is used where research has been carried out using the data from primary as well as secondary source of information. Secondary information is collected from a number of research papers published by different  people. Primary research is done by collecting data from various companies. companies. 3.3 Sampling Technique:

The sample has been collected from the field of real estate companies which are involved in construction businesses intensively requiring supply chain management in order to acquire the materials of construction and continue their operations. Thus supply chain is an integral  part of these companies as their efficiency in construction will entirely be dependent upon how well they manage their supply chain to acquire the raw material for construction. Sample is collected randomly from the companies in different differ ent regions of Delhi-NCR. 3.4 Sample size:

A sample of 20 companies is collected to continue this research. 3.5 Tool used for data collection:

Data is collected from companies with the help of questionnaire which contains a total of 28 different questions that are capable of covering all the areas related to quality in supply chain management. Questions are related to the various supply chain practices that are



 performed by various organizations and the respondent needs to answer those questions on the basis of these functions being practiced in their organization. They have to rate those questions as to how much level these functions are being practiced in the organization, 1  being not practiced and 5 being highly highly practiced. 3.6 Limitations:

1.  Due to time constraint, sample size is small. 2.  Many prominent companies in real estate were reluctant to share their data due to their company‟s policy.  policy.  



Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Interpretation A total of 27 questions were asked from the respondents on various aspects of supply chain management issues in their company. Each question has distinctive response from different companies and based on this response, a graph has been plotted based upon which data will be analysed. Q.1

Creating SCM teams with members from different companies.

As seen from the above graph, majority majorit y of companies (more than 45 %) believe in creati creating ng SCM teams with members from different companies. This not only facilities in managing the supply chain network efficiently but also it helps in synchronizing different SCM companies which helps in saving cost as well as time. Q2.

As seen from above graph, only 10% of the companies do not focus on extending membership beyond immediate suppliers and customers. Rest, 50 % companies believe in 10


extending membership up to a certain level. This shows they won‟t hesitate to change their supplier if the supplier doesn‟t doesn ‟t fulfil their needs, although it happens less. Around 40 % of the companies believe in extending membership beyond immediate suppliers and customers. This shows their approach of building long term relationships with their suppliers and customers, thus, enjoying various advantages of supplier and customer loyalty as well as high margins.


As seen from the above graph, we can say that no company(0 %) is fully ready to share sensitive information to their suppliers because there is a risk of information getting leaked to their competitors. Though they are willing to share certain information at medium and moderate level which helps the supplier to understand what is expected out of him and therefore, they could perform their duties well and maintain quality in supply chain.




A majority of company opts for involving all members of supply chain in  product/service/marketing plans (around 85 %) as shown in the above graph. This in turn helps the company in understanding the customers better and realising their needs and thus, in turn helping the company to design their products accordingly. Involving all members of supply chain is a great way of knowing what actually the customer wants and thus it will help in improving the product. Q.5

The above graph shows the varying level of companies as to how much they involve supplier participation in designing the product




Above graph shows that around 60 % of the companies generally involves less of supplier and buyer in making the product. The involvement is only up to a certain level which implies that company generally rely on a team of experts in making the product, though they make take crucial inputs from both the buyer and the supplier. Q.7

Creating compatible communication/ information system has become the basic necessity of any organization with their supply chain members because a well-established communication system helps in improving the relations with supply chain members, as well as it helps in enhancing the quality in supply chain through fast and efficient delivery. Around 80 % companies are in favour of establishing an efficient communication communication system, which only supports the importance of information systems in maintain the supply chain.




for an organization to maintain quality in supply chain, first of all they need to focus on improving the integration of activities across supply chain. The more efficient the integration, the more effective will be the supply chain because it will help in synchronizing all these activities, thus, reducing the wastage in time and money. With more than 90% of companies focusing on improving this integration to some extent or the other, it shows how much company have realized this important factor in improving the quality qualit y of supply chain. Q9.

Establishing frequent contacts with supply chain members is really important for the company in order to build long term and effective relationship as well as seeing that efficiency of supply chain is maintained because frequent contact with the members will help in explain what is expected of them. A lapse in communication may result in misunderstandings happening between the members and the company.



The results from the survey emphasises that most of the companies (90%) believe in establishing frequent contacts with the supply chain members because they have realized the importance of keeping supply chain members in touch. Q10.

The above bar graph shows how much the companies believe in providing the training to suppliers on quality aspects. Quality is a major issue for any company. Every company wants to maintain quality because every sub-standard quality product not only increase the cost and time of production but also may result in losing of trust from customer‟s point poi nt of view. In order to maintain this trust, they need to maintain the quality of product. Hence they should clearly communicate this demand to their suppliers and if necessary, they should also provide training so as to tell what those members, what is expected of them. As clear from the result, most companies provide training to suppliers on quality aspects. Though some companies do not provide much training to the suppliers, this implies that the suppliers are very efficient in realising the quality needs of their customers and hence, do not require much training.




In cooperation with suppliers with respect to process design, we see moderate response from the companies. Some are highly in favour of this, while some don‟t focus much. The reason behind this is that companies generally like to design their process in their own way in accordance with the goals and objectives as well as rules and regulations of their company. Though it may be highly beneficial for the company if they include suppliers also in designing their process. Q12.

Time is one of those factors of supply chain which adds value to the product. Hence, it is important to reduce the time taken in the movement of goods in supply chain network. Here response time is of considerable importance. Faster the response, more efficient will be the supply chain network. The companies now a days have realized the importance of this factor and hence, as it is clear from the graph, majority of companies focus on reducing the response time across the supply chain. 16



It is very important important for any organization to communicate customer‟s future strategic needs throughout the supply chain to let them know what is going to happen in future and what is expected of them. As clear from the results, majority of the companies ( 70%) communicate the customer‟s future strategic needs throughout t hroughout the supply chain network. network.   Q14.

In today‟s era, IT has drastically changed the way the organizations used to work in the  past. It not only has simplified the work but also has led to increased efficiency, increased quality levels and therefore increased satisfaction level. As the time is progressing, more and more companies are upgrading their machinery as well as process and using more and more IT in their day to day work. Even the results are in accordance with this fact and more and more companies are shifting towards IT driven work in order to enhance the quality as well as efficiency in production.




JIT as a principle is a concept of just in time inventory system. It involves keeping zero inventory invento ry and relying on supplier‟s distribution ability to provide the raw material in time. As clear from the graph, very few companies (only 40%) rely on JIT principle in managing their inventory. The reason for such a low interest may be attributed to the poor infrastructural developments (roads) and inefficient mode of transport. JIT as a principle is highly successful in foreign and thus it helps foreign companies to save a lot of money and man power in managing the inventory and thus reducing the overall costs. Q16.

A supplier will work efficiently if it gets the full support from the organization to whom it is supplying the material. As it is clear from the graph, to a certain level, companies  participate in the quality efforts of supplier. They are ready to help the supplier in every  possible way to enhance the quality.




Businesses run on trust. More the trust, smoother will be the road of their success. Hence trust is an important factor which every organization realises and tries to instil it in all the stakeholders including the supply chain members. As clear from the result, majority of the co company‟s mpany‟s (90%) focus on developing a greater level of trust among supply chain members which helps in getting the right quality of work from them. Q18.

As seen from the result, companies prefer quality over price in selecting any material. Though it may add extra cost to the company but the quality they get is beneficial in the long run. For some companies though it may be otherwise due to financial and resource constraints, but mostly prefer quality over price.




Here we get the moderate result because companies have a lot of option when it comes to getting supply due to high competition in the market. So only about 35 % of companies consider supplier‟s capability when designing products. Rest of the companies generally don‟t take it into consideration. considerat ion. The reason may be attributed to less involvement of suppliers in the designing process. Q20.

The businesses today are integrated systems in which all the people are connected and inter-related with each other. If one suffers any problem then this has effect on all other connected to the system. Thus it is important for the organizations to tackle these problems together. As clear from the result, companies do help supply chain members in solving all those problems which create hindrance in their smooth working.




When supply chain members contribute so much to delivering the quality of their product to the organizations, then it is also the responsibilities of these organizations to fulfil the needs of supply chain members so that they may way better satisfaction with their work and they in turn may contribute more. Interpreting the results, around 40% of the companies are somewhat committed to fulfilling the needs of supply chain members. Though the number of companies who are highly committed are 50 % but this is low and should be enhanced for developing better relations with the supply chain members. Q22.

While selecting any supplier, an organization checks for the past record of that supplier in delivering what they promise. It is very important because it helps in developing trust and understanding. Moreover if an organization selects any supplier on the basis of the past record then it is more likely that the supplier will be reliable for the organizations. So from



the result we find that companies (80%) show their keen interest in knowing the quality records of supplier. Q23.

Keeping supplier informed regarding any process change helps the supplier in adjusting to the needs of the organization according to the changes as suggested to them. If the company doesn‟t inform the suppliers about the cha changes nges in process then it may lead to confusions, delays in order fulfilment and also dip in quality. Hence company should inform the suppliers about any changes in process. As seen from the result, majority of the companies do take effort in keeping the suppliers informed regarding any process change. Q24.

Establishing long-term relationships has various advantages for the company. The advantages includes mutual trust, increased efficiency in working together, discount benefits, fast delivery etc. As seen from the result, companies focus more on developing long term relationships with the supply chain members. 22



The result here is mixed because companies not only rely on suppliers for demand forecasting but also use more advanced statistical tools and techniques for demand forecasting.


As clear from the graph, this is a major function which is used by the companies to maintain the quality in supply chain. Thoroughly inspecting the incoming supplies will help in detecting the defects in materials and thus maintain the quality of goods purchased.




More than 90% of the companies select the suppliers based on quality record which helps in ensuring that quality is maintained in supply chain.



Chapter 5 Findings 1.  More than 50 % of companies believe in creating supply chain member teams in order to fulfill its supply chain needs. However, 25 % of companies put moderate effort and another 25 % put low effort in creating the t he supply chain member teams. 2.  Around 50% of the companies moderately believe in extending membership  beyond immediate suppliers supplier s and customers and 40% of the companies believe highly in extending their membership beyond immediate suppliers an customers. 3.  Only 40 % of the companies are willing to share their sensitive information to suppliers and res of the companies either moderately share there sensitive information or sharing is very less. 4.  Around 85% of the companies involve all members of supply chain in  product/service/marketing plans either moderately or very highly. 5.  Only about about 30 % of the companies involve their supplier‟s  participation in  product design and rest either moderately or very less or not at all participate in  product design. 6.  More than 80 % of the companies believe in creating compatible communication/ information systems for supply chain members. 7.  More than 85% of the companies highly believe in improving integration of activities across supply chain. 8.  Around 90 % of the companies believe in establishing more frequent contacts with supply chain members. 9.  Around 70 % of the companies believe highly in providing training to suppliers on quality aspect whereas 30% of the companies take less effort in doing that. 10.  Only about 50% of the companies cooperate with suppliers with respect to  process design and rest either moderately or very less cooperate with suppliers in  process design. 11.  95% of the companies believe in reducing response time across the supply chain. 12.  Around 55% of the companies highly and 15% of the companies very highly highly communicate customer‟s future strategic needs needs throughout the supply chain.



13.  Only 40% of the companies practice JIT in their operations at high level. Rest of the companies either use at medium rate or at low. 14.  More than 75% of the companies use it enabled operations, logistics and  production. 15.  More than 80% of the companies participates in the quality effort of the supplier. 16.  More than 90% of the companies believe in creating a greater level of trust among supply chain members. 17.  Around 65% of the company‟s emphasis quality instead of price in supplier development. 18.  Only about 35% of the companies consider supplier‟s capability when designing the products. 19.  Around 65% of the companies believe in joint problem solving with supply chain members. 20.  Only 55% of the companies are highly committed to fulfilling the needs of supply chain members. 21.  Around 80% of the companies make effort in knowing supplier‟s quality record. 22.  Around 80% of the companies make effort in keeping suppliers informed regarding any process change. 23.  Around 90% of the companies believe in establishing long term relationships with suppliers. 24.  Only about 50% of the companies cooperate with suppliers with respect to forecasting and production planning. 25.  100% of the companies make effort in quality inspection of incoming supplies. 26.  90% of companies select suppliers based on quality records.



Chapter 6 Conclusion


Companies make a lot of effort in maintaining the quality in supply chain

network. They include the supply chain members in various activities related to  production, process design, forecasting etc 



They make effort to create compatible information/system for supply chain



They believe in making frequent contact with suppliers and keeping them

informed about any changes.


They believe in building trust and long term relationships with the supply

chain members.


They make effort in quality inspections of the incoming supplies leading to

 better quality across the supply chain.



Companies should focus on extending membership beyond the immediate

suppliers and customers.


Companies should be more willing to share their information to the supply

chain members.


Companies should involve more participation from supply chain members in

 product design. 

Companies should include JIT as a principle for managing the inventory.

Companies should consider supplier‟s capability while designing the product.  product.  




References Research papers 1.  Ashwini








MANAGEMENT IN SUPPLY CHAINS”, CHAINS”, International Journal for Quality research. 2.  Guangshu Chang, Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Management(2009), Management (2009), “Total “Total Quality Management in Supply Chain” Chain” 


3.  Roaimah Omar, Suhaiza Zailani & Mohamad Sulaiman, “SUPPLY CHAIN QUALITY MANAGEMENT (SCQM): NEW EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIAN COMPANIES”. COMPANIES ”.   4.  Lynn A. Fish, “ Supply Chain Quality Quality Management”  Management”  5.  Gyaneshwar Singh Kushwaha, Kushwaha, Prof. Deepak Barman, “Impact of Supply Chain Quality Management on Competitive Advantage and Organizational Performance””  Performance

Links 1. 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain



supply-chain-quality-and-risk-era-globalization.html   supply-chain-quality-and-risk-era-globalization.html 3. 


 pathways-for-research-and-practice/supply-chain-quality-management    pathways-for-research-and-practice/supply-chain-quality-management 4. 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305048304001343  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305048304001343 



 pathways-for-research-and-practice/supply-chain-quality-management    pathways-for-research-and-practice/supply-chain-quality-management



Questionnaire Q. What functions of supply chain management are practiced in your company to maintain the quality in supply chain?

1=not practiced; 2=rarely practiced; 3=somewhat practiced; 4=moderately practiced; 5=highly practiced 1.  Creating SCM teams with members from different companies. 2.  Extend membership beyond immediate suppliers and customers 3.  Participates in the sourcing decisions of suppliers 4.  Willingness to share sensitive information 5.  Involving all members of supply chain in product/service/marketing plans 6.  Supplier participates in product design 7.  Co-making product with supplier and buyer 8.  Creating compatible communication/information systems for supply chain members 9.  Improving integration of activities across supply chain 10. Establishing more frequent contacts with supply chain members 11. Providing training to suppliers on quality aspects 12. Cooperate with suppliers with respect to process design 13. Reducing response time across supply chain 14. Communicating customer‟s future strategic needs throughout supply chain  chain  15. IT enabled operations, logistics and production 16. Practicing JIT principles in our operations 17. Participates in the quality efforts of supplier 18. Creating a greater level of trust among supply chain members 19. Emphasis quality instead of price in supplier development 20. Consider supplier‟s capability when designing designing products 21. Joint problem solving with the supply chain members 22. Committed to fulfill the needs of supply chain members 23. Knowing suppliers‟ quality records  records   24. Keeping suppliers informed regarding any process change 25. Establishing long-term relationship with suppliers 26. Cooperate with suppliers with respect to forecasting and production planning 29


27. Inspection of incoming supplies 28. Selecting suppliers based on quality records


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