A brief presentation on evolution of mobile phones.
Evolution of Mobile Phones
Mobile phone is an electronic device
for mobile telecommunications over a
In addition to mobile telephony, mobiles also support
• Text messaging
• MMS and GPRS etc.
Martin Cooper a Motorola researcher invented the first mobile phone in 1973.
And in 1983 the first mobile phone DynaTAC 8000x was commercially available.
Development of Mobile technology took place in four generations.
The first commercial cellular network was launched in Japan
by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) in 1979.
It used digital signaling to connect the radio towers to the rest
of the telephone system the voice itself during a call modulated
to higher frequency, typically 150 MHz and up.
1G speeds vary between that of a 28k modem(28kbit/s) and
56k modem(56kbit/s), meaning actual download speeds of
2.9KBytes/s to 5.6KBytes/s.
2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the
GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja in 1991.
2G introduced GPRS which provided data services for mobile,
starting with SMS text messages, MMS multimedia messages
and WAP (Wireless Application Protocol ) for internet access.
GPRS could provide data rates from 56 Kbit/s up to 115 Kbit/s.
The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo
in Japan in 1998. The first network to go commercially live was by
SK Telecom in South Korea on the CDMA-based technology in 2002.
3G networks are able to reach speeds from 14Mbits/s to 50Mbits/s.
3G came with new standards such as CDMA 2000, UMTS, EDGE etc.
with faster data transfer rates it introduced services such as high
speed internet access, video calls and mobile TV.
In 2002, the strategic vision for 4G which International Telecommunication
Union designated as IMT-Advanced was laid out. In April 2006, KT started the
world's first commercial mobile WiMAX service in Seoul, South Korea.
4G uses LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advanced as its communication standard.
Its main aim is to offer high speed broadband services to laptops and
smartphones. Conceivable applications include high-definition mobile TV,
video conferencing, gaming services.
4G networks are able to reach speeds from 100Mbits/s to 1Gbits/s.
Cellular Network Standards
There are many network standards in the four generations. The
two most widely used cellular networks are
• GSM ( Global System for Mobile communication )
• CDMA ( Code Division Multiple Access )
Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) is the most
widely used standard for cell phones in the world.
This cellular networks uses radio networks that consist of cells.
Every cell is a site that has a corresponding network tower,
which serves the mobile phones in that cellular area.
GSM networks use SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card, the
onboard memory device that identifies a user and stores all
of his information on the handheld device.
CDMA is the most dominant standard in the USA.
It uses one physical channel and a special code for every
device in the coverage network. Using this code, the signal
of the device is multiplexed, and the same physical channel
is used to send the signal.
Instead of using SIM cards like the GSM network standard,
in CDMA the account information is programmed into the
cellular phone. If one wants to change their cell phone then
they should contact their service provider and have them
reprogram their new cellphone.
A smartphone is a device that lets you make telephone calls like a
regular cell phone, but also adds in features which you can only
find in a on a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or a computer.
Besides voice calls and SMS, smartphones have many other features such as:
• Wireless Internet Access
• Media Player
• Digital Camera
• Video Camera
• GPS Navigation System
• Video Calls
• Create and Edit Documents
• QWERTY Keaboard
With the recent developments in mobile phone and the ever
growing use of smartphones.
The mobile phones are replacing media players, digital cameras,
devices for internet access.
The mobile phone are getting faster capable of handling big tasks
and more feature are being added to it day by day.
With progress like this the smartphone will replace laptops one day.