of 4

IRJET-Real Time Crowd Tracking Using Wireless Ad-Hoc Network

Published on July 2016 | Categories: Types, Presentations | Downloads: 32 | Comments: 0
99 views

This paper uses wireless network as a medium to track people in a limited closed environment without the internet connection using their existing mobile phones. This technology can be used in a scenario where a huge crowd of people are to be tracked along with their location coordinates with reference to a stationary point in the environment known as the Hub. The technology used is wireless mesh networking, where a string of devices connect to each known as nodes. Here, each device is a node which communicates with other nodes. The Hub is also a node whose location coordinates is known to the tracking server. Locations of the nodes are sent with reference to the nearest Hub via other nodes. Numerous Hubs are connected to each other there by forming a mesh network of themselves, which are in turn connected to the server. It uses Wi-Fi on the mobile to let it communicate with the other nodes directly. This makes it particularly useful in areas where the internet and GPS are restricted or unavailable. This technology is superior to the RFID tracking mechanism in many ways regarding cost, set-up, tag collision and range. This technology can be used for real time tracking with partially accurate location coordinates which is not possible using RFIDs.

Comments

Content

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 02 Issue: 03 | June-2015

p-ISSN: 2395-0072

www.irjet.net

Real Time Crowd Tracking Using Wireless Ad-Hoc Network
Rakesh Krishnan1, Vivek K. Keecheril2, Prof. Pankaj Raibagkar3
Student, MCA Department, SIES College Of Management Studies, Maharashtra, India
Student, MCA Department, SIES College Of Management Studies, Maharashtra, India
3 Professor, MCA Department, SIES College Of Management Studies, Maharashtra, India
1
2

---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract - This paper uses wireless network as a
medium to track people in a limited closed environment
without the internet connection using their existing
mobile phones. This technology can be used in a
scenario where a huge crowd of people are to be
tracked along with their location coordinates with
reference to a stationary point in the environment
known as the Hub. The technology used is wireless mesh
networking, where a string of devices connect to each
known as nodes. Here, each device is a node which
communicates with other nodes. The Hub is also a node
whose location coordinates is known to the tracking
server. Locations of the nodes are sent with reference to
the nearest Hub via other nodes. Numerous Hubs are
connected to each other there by forming a mesh
network of themselves, which are in turn connected to
the server. It uses Wi-Fi on the mobile to let
it communicate with the other nodes directly. This
makes it particularly useful in areas where the internet
and GPS are restricted or unavailable. This technology
is superior to the RFID tracking mechanism in many
ways regarding cost, set-up, tag collision and range.
This technology can be used for real time tracking with
partially accurate location coordinates which is not
possible using RFIDs.

Key Words: Tracking, wireless tracking, crowd
tracking, real time tracking
1. INTRODUCTION
Real-time location systems (RTLS) [1] are used to track
and identify the location of objects in real time using
A. “Nodes” or “tags” attached to, or embedded in the
objects tracked [2]
B. “Readers” that receive and process the wireless
signals from these tags to determine their
locations [2]
© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved

Fig -1: RFID System
RTLS systems may perform passive or active (automatic)
collection of location information of an object in real-time
in a given physical space. RTLS systems use radio
frequency (RF), optical (usually infrared) or acoustic
(usually ultrasound) technology. Fixed point transmitters
and receivers known as Tags may use a combination of
these technologies. Location information usually does not
include speed, direction, or spatial orientation.
RTLS are by and large utilized as a part of indoor and/or
confined areas, for example, buildings, and don't give
worldwide scope like GPS. RTLS tags are fastened to
mobile things to be tracked and reported. RTLS reference
points (transmitters or receivers) are installed at various
locations to provide consistent tag coverage. As a rule, the
more RTLS reference points that are introduced, the better
the area precision, until the technological barriers are
reached.

2. SHORTFALLS OF EXISTING RFID SYSTEM [3]
A. RFID Reader Collision: Reader collision is caused
when the signals from 2 or additional readers
overlap. The tag is unable to reply to synchronous
queries. Hence, tags can only be read in an

Page 2098

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 02 Issue: 03 | June-2015

p-ISSN: 2395-0072

www.irjet.net

environment where the readers are isolated from
one another.
C.
B. RFID Tag Collision can only be read in a serial
manner based on a queue system to avoid collisions.
D.
C.

Real time monitoring: Since, the tags need to be near
or under the tag reader for tracking; real time
tracking of these tags may not be possible if mobility
is to be achieved by an object containing the tag. The
tags need to be under a specific coverage area of the
readers. Hence, Real Time Tracking only up to a
certain level is possible.

E.

3. ARCHITECHTURE OF A TYPICAL GPS BASED
RTLS SYSTEM [4]
F.
Major constituents of the GPS based tracking are:A. GPS tracking device: The GPS unit is a device that
uses the Global Positioning System to determine
the precise location of an object under
observation. It transmits location details to a
remote system at specified intervals. The GPS
module contains the GPS module to send and
receive signals to a navigation satellite and
calculate the coordinates using techniques like
Triangulation.
B. GPS tracking server: The tracking server does the
task of receiving and storing the information from
the GPS module and serving it to the required
user or system.
C.

User interface: The UI helps to view, manage and
analyze the information recorded. Data can be
shown in the form of mathematical graphs and
charts to make information easier to visualize and
recognize patterns.

4. APPLICATIONS OF REAL TIME LOCATION
TRACKING SYSTEM (RTLS)
A. Vehicle tracking: Vehicles can be outfitted with
Radio Frequency (RF) or Global Positioning
System (GPS) units to allow tracking and
recovery.
B. Fleet management: Knowing the real-time
location of all drivers allows management of a
fleet of cars a taxi company and so by serving the
passenger with the nearest vehicle in a minimal
© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved

amount of time thereby saving both money and
time.
Transit tracking: Tracking of assets transported
from one place to another can be tracked at each
pick up or delivery point.
Stolen vehicle recovery: Vehicles with inbuilt GPS
unit can be tracked real time in the case of theft
of the vehicle.
Cattle monitoring: Cattle tracking allow the
farmers to monitor the movements of livestock
throughout the landscape, plot grazing patterns
and see what areas the livestock have been
depleting nutrients in the soil. Farmers utilize
real-time GPS tracking to keep an eye on
livestock have the ability to monitor spatial
movements and spatial activities, information
that can provide multiple benefits.
Prisoner tracking: Monitoring and locating
prisoners inside the prison perimeter or while on
parole can be done efficiently via GPS tracking.

5. PROPOSED SYSTEM
‘Real Time Crowd Tracking’ is a system that allows to
track crowd of people using their existing mobile devices
without any additional ‘Tags’ or ‘Readers’ required. It uses
the inbuilt wireless technology to create a mesh network
of devices. These devices called as ‘nodes’ connect to each
other rather than connecting to a central server directly,
thus forming a Wireless Ad-Hoc network [5]. Location
coordinates are tracked by ‘Hubs’ installed at various
locations. Locations of the nodes are sent using ‘Multi hop’
technique to the hub via neighbor nodes.
Location coordinates of the nodes are determined using
hubs whose location are known in advance and are fixed.
Signal strength of each node from each other neighbor
node is sent to the central server which uses
‘Triangulation’ and ‘Fuzzy Logic’ to calculate the location
of each node with reference to the hub.

5.1 MESH COMMUNICATION [6]
The communication between the nodes takes place in 2
scenarios.
A. Intra mesh communication: Communication
within a specific set of nodes in a single mesh
network.

Page 2099

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 02 Issue: 03 | June-2015

p-ISSN: 2395-0072

www.irjet.net

B. Inter mesh communication: Communication
between 2 or more mesh networks each having a
specific set of nodes.

5.1.2 INTRA MESH COMMUNICATION
Intra mesh communication takes place when s set of nodes
within the same mesh network form an ad-hoc network
and exchange data.

Fig -3: Hopper node connected to Network B
Communication from Network B to Network A takes place
as follows
i.
Fig -2: Intra mesh communication using ad-hoc
network

ii.

Here, each node is connected to every other node via their
neighboring nodes. Communication between nonconnected nodes takes place via Hopping [7].
Communication between node A and node D takes place as
follows:-

Hopper node connected to network B exchanges
data with other nodes in a normal fashion. Hopper
node is completely unaware of its transition from
network B to network A.
Whenever, the hopper node moves away from the
network B, it gets disconnected from the network.
A node needs to be connected to at least 1 other
node to be involved in a network.

i. Node A sends data to node B.
ii. Node B sends data to node C.
iii. Finally, node C sends data to node D.

5.1.3 INTER MESH COMMUNICATION
Inter mesh communication takes place when nodes
belonging to 2 different mesh networks transfer data
among each other. Inter mesh communication using a
hopper node takes place when a node belonging to a mesh
network leaves the current network and joins another
network thus transferring data from one network to
another.

© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved

Fig. 4: Hopper node disconnected from a network
iii.

The hopper nodes further moves away from the
previous network and remains disconnected
there by halting it’s communication with any
other node.

iv.

The hopper node keeps searching for other
networks in its vicinity.

Page 2100

v.

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 02 Issue: 03 | June-2015

p-ISSN: 2395-0072

www.irjet.net

On coming under the coverage of another
network and their nodes, the hopper node
instantly connects to the new network.

6. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper we have studied the problem of tracking
Mobile objects using RFID and GPS technology.
We proposed a hybrid system for achieving high efficiency
in object tracking using the existing frameworks and
technology which are easily scalable. The system thus
provides a novel but simple solution to real time crowd
tracking.
Our future work includes implementing and validating the
proposed system.

REFERENCES
[1]
Fig -5: Hopper node connected to Network A
[2]
vi.

The hopper node then transfers the node data of
the previous network to the nodes of the new
network.

Thus communication between 2 different networks takes
place using a hopper node which keeps moving and
participating in different network activities. This forms the
basic technique for sharing location data among other
nodes which may be spread out in different locations,
connected to a different set of nodes thereby forming their
own ad-hoc network.

© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved

[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realtime_locating_system
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiofrequency_identification
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/TechnologyArticle.asp?ArtNum=20
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vehicle_tracking_s
ystem
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_ad_hoc_n
etwork
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesh_networking
http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_IPRoutingCon
ceptsandtheProcessofNextHopRouting.htm

Page 2101

Sponsor Documents

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on INBA.INFO

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close