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National Education Policy Pakistan

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Ministry of Education Government of Pakistan

November, 2009.


Acknowledgements The Ministry of Education Education acknowledges th thee work and input of all provincial and area governments for development of the Natio National nal Educatio Education n Policy. In fact the document reflects the commonalities culled from the advice and input of the governments governments of all the federating units as well as members members of civi civill society society,, Univer Universiti sities, es, expert expertss of MoE & prov provincia incial/are l/areaa Educat Education ion departments, education managers, specialists, academia, teachers, students, parents, and a host of  other stak stakehold eholders ers iinclu ncluding ding line mini ministri stries, es, High Higher er Ed Educati ucation on C Comm ommissio ission n (H (HEC), EC), Natio National nal Vocational Vocat ional and Techni Technical cal Educat Education ion Comm Commission ission (NA (NAVTEC VTEC), ), Inst Institut itutee for Educ Education ational al Development- Aga Khan University (IED-AKU), Academy of Educationa Educationall Planni Planning ng and Managementt (A Managemen (AEPAM EPAM), ), Paki Pakistan stan Medi Medical cal and Denta Dentall C Counci ouncill ((PM&D PM&DC) C) and Paki Pakistan stan Engineering Council (PEC).








Background The Demographic Transition Uniformity and Confidence in Public Education System Globalization and Competitiveness Social Exclusion and Social Cohesion Setting Standards for Education Dovetailing Government Initiatives Leveraging International Development Partnerships M Maajor Deficiencies Understanding System Deficiencies 1.10.1 The Commitment Gap 1.10.2 The Implementation Gap 1.11 The Way Forward: A Paradigm Shift


3 3 3 3 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8




Educational Vision and Performance A Reaffirmation of Educational Vision Aims and Objectives Overarching Priorities: Widening Access and Raising Quality Mobilising Resources for Education

9 9 10 11 13







Developing a Whole-of-Sector View


3..3 2 3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Envseurcrionm g iPnogliFcryagCm oh erteed ncG e overnance O en Bridging the Public-Private Divide Overcoming Structural Divides Building Management and Planning Capacity Getting the Community Involved

1 15 6 17 19 21 22






Islamic Education: Duty of the Society and the State





Early Childhood Education (ECE)


27 27




5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Elementary Education Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Literacy and Non-Formal Learning Education in Emergencies

28 28 30 32



RAISING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7



Improving Teacher Quality C Cu urriculum Reform Quality in Textbooks and Learning Materials Improving Student Assessment Attaining Standards in the Learning Environment Co-Curricular and Extra-Curricular Activities Matching with the Employment Market

33 35 37 38 39 40 41





Technical Education and Vocational Training Possible Strategies

43 45






Challenges Strategic Vision

47 48






Objective Policy as a Living Adaptable Document IPEM to Oversee Progress Provincial Autonomy and Ownership Role of Development Partners

53 53 54 55 55




C. D. E.


Access to Educational Opportunities Equity in Education B1. The Gender Dimension B2. The Rural-Urban Divide B3. Provincial and Area Disparities Quality of Provision The Resource Commitment Structure of Education: Public-Private Provision


57 57 58 58 59 59 60 62 62






Aga Khan University


Medium Term Development Framework  

B. Ed.

Bachelor of Education


National Vocational & Technical Education Commission

B. S Scc.

Bachelor of of Sc Science


National Commission for Human Development

B. A.

Bachelor of Arts

Dip. Ed


National Education As Assessment System

Diploma in Education


National Education Census


District Education Officer


National Education Foundation


Director of Public Instructions


National Education Management Information System


Early Childhood Education


National Education Policy


Executive District Officer


National Education Policy Review


Education for All


Net Enrolment Ratio


Educational Management and Information System


Non Formal Basic Education


End of Year


Non- Formal Education


Federally Administered Tribal Areas


National Qualifications Framework  


Financial Management Information System


North West Fr Frontier P Prrovince


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development


Fast Track Initiative


Global Competitive Index


Policy and Planning (Wing)


Gross Domestic Product


Provincial Education Assessment Centre


Gross Enrolment Ratio


Pakistan Engineering Council


Global Monitoring Report

Ph. D.

Doctor of Philosophy


Government of of Pa Pakistan


Programme for International Student Assessment


Gender Parity Index


Pakistan Medical and Dental Council


Human Development Index



Human Development Report


Personnel Management Information System Public Private Partnerships




Higher Education Commission


Parent Teachers Association


Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Virus/Acquire d Immune Deficiency Syndrome


Pupil-Teacher Ratio


Hu Hum man Res esou ourrce Dev evel elop opm men entt


Research and Development


Islamabad Ca Capital T Teerritory


School Improvement Plan


Information Communication Technologies


School Management Committee


Institutee for Education Institut Educational al Development (AKU)


Students, Teachers, Educationists, Parents and Society


Inter-Provincial Education Inter-Provincial Ministers' Conference


Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study


Loca Locall Go Gove vern rnme ment nt Or Ordi dina nanc nces es


Technical & Vocational Education


Life Life Sk Skil ills ls-B -Bas ased ed Ed Educ ucat atio ion n


United Nations


Mid-Decade aassses esssment



Mill Millen enni nium um Deve Develo lopm pmen entt Goal Goalss

United Nations Development Program United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization


Ministry of Education


Universal Primary Education


Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education


United States Agency for International Development

Minimum Standard of Provision


World Bank  






In 62 years of its existence, Pakistan’s achievements in education have been much below potential and far behind the world around it. The low educational achievements have been a source of worry for all concerned Pakistanis. Poor educational indicators mean t hat Pakistan’s development progress remains slow. The present government shares the concerns of all Pakistanis in this regard and the current policy document comes out as an important starting point laying out a national agenda for educational development. All provincial Chief Ministers have endorsed this document under the leadership of the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Pakistan has produced a number of educational policies in the past and all have been quality docu quality document mentss in thei theirr own righ right. t. The fai failure lure ha hass alway alwayss been in th thee comm commitmen itmentt and implementation. Resultantly, the current document “National Education Policy 2009” focuses on governance as an issue and also calls for manifesting its commitment to education by investing more on education. The implementation framework also elaborates a federal-inter-provincial process that would involve the provinces as autonomous in development of implementation strategies and plans. The Inter- provincial  provincial Education Minister Ministers’ s’ forum has been designated as the oversight body for monitoring, again shifting the responsibility to all the federating units collectively. Despite the new concepts in the document on implementation and governance, success will depend on our comm commitment itment to the cause of educatio education n in Pakis Pakistan. tan. There has to be a realization that the country’s future depends on our ability to implement the current policy more effectively than previous attempts. This will only be possible if the political will continues to be high and can be backed by provision provision of resources to the sector. I thank the Prime Minister of Pakistan for his strong commitment that has enabled this document to appear as a consensus policy, agreed to by all the provincial and area governments. I am also grateful to the provincial governments, especially all Chief Ministers, for their interest in the document from its inception to its finalization. I hope that the commitment will continue to sustain and help the vision in the document convert into actual improvement on ground for the children of Pakistan.


 Islamabad, the 22  October, 2009

Sd/(Mir Hazar Khan Bijarani)  Education Minister  Minister 







INTRODUCTION 1. The National Education Policy (NEP) 2009 (“the Policy”) is the latest latest in a series of edu educatio cation n policies dating back to the very inception of the country in 1947. The review process for the National Education Policy 1998-2010 was initiated in 2005 and the first public document, the White Paper, was finalised in March 2007. The White Paper, as designed, became the basis for development of the Policy docum doc ument ent.. Tho Thoug ugh h fou fourr yea years rs hav havee ela elapse psed d betw between een beg beginn inning ing an and d fin finali alisat sation ion o off the exe exerci rcise, se, th the, e, lag is due tothat a number of facto factors inclu including ding th thee process of con consult sultation ationss adopte adopted d and sign significan ificantt politi political cal changes took place in therscountry. 2. Tw Two o m mai ain n re reaso asons ns pr prom ompt pted ed th thee M Min inis istr try y o off E Edu duca cati tion on (M (MoE oE)) tto o lau launc nch h the the revi review ew in 2005 2005 1 well before the tim timee horizon of the existing Policy (1998 - 2010) : fi firs rstl tly y, the the Poli Policy cy did did not not prod produc ucee the desired educational rresults esults and performance remained deficient iin n several key aspects including access, quality and equity o off educational opp opportunities ortunities and, secondly, Pakistan’s new international commitme comm itments nts to Mill Millenni ennium um Dev Developm elopment ent Goa Goals ls (MD (MDGs) Gs) and D Dakar akar Fr Framewo amework rk of Act Action ion for Education Educat ion ffor or Al Alll (EF (EFA). A). A Also lso the cchal hallenges triggered by globalisatio globalisation n and nation’s quest for  becoming a knowledge knowledge society in the wake of compellin compelling g domestic pressures like devolution an and d demographic transformations transformations have necessitated a renewed commitment commitment to proliferate quality education for all. 3.

Thi Thiss d docu ocume ment nt is org organi anize zed d iinto nto nin ninee cchap hapter ters. s. Cha Chapte pterr 1 des descri cribes bes ov overar erarchi ching ng cha challe llenge nges, s,

identifying two fundamental causes tha thatt lie behind the deficiencies in performance performance (the commitm commitment ent gap and the implementation gap), and outlines the way forward. Chapters 2 and 3 articulate the ways of  filling the Commitment Gap (system values, priorities and resources) and Implementation Gap (Ensuring good governance) respectively. Chapter 4 puts forward the provisions of Islamic Education and transformation of the society on Islamic Islamic human values. Chapters 5 to 8 outline reforms and policy actions to be taken at the sub-sector levels. Chapter 9 broadly suggests a Framework for Implementation of the Action Plan of this Policy docum document. ent. Annex- I describes the current state of the education sector. Available indicators have been assessed against data in comparable countries. 4. Most of tth he issues rreeco cog gnised in tth his do document w weere also discussed in p pre rev vious po policy documents. docum ents. A n new ew p policy olicy docum document ent on its own will not amel ameliorat ioratee the cond conditio ition n but all segm segments ents of  society will have to contribute in this endeavour. However, the document does recognise two deficits of  previous documents i.e. governance reform and an implementation roadmap, which if redressed, can improve impr ove the p perform erformance ance of the presen presentt P Polic olicy. y. 5. The pol policy icy dis discus cusses ses iss issues ues of interinter-tie tierr re respo sponsi nsibi bilit lities ies whe wherei rein n th thee re respe specti ctive ve rrole oless aand nd functions of the federal-provincial-distric federal-provincial-districtt governments con continue tinue to be unclear. Confusio Confusion n has been compounded, especially, at the provincial-district levels after the ‘Devolution Plan’ mainly because the latter was not supported by a clear articulation of strategies. The other issue identified for governance reforms is the fragmentation of ministries, institutions etc. for management of various sub-sectors of  education and, at times, within each sub-sector. Problems of management and planning have also been discussed and recommendations prepared. 6. This This d doc ocum umen entt in incl clud udes es a ch chap apte terr th that at de desc scri ribe bess the iimp mple leme ment ntat atio ion n fra frame mewo work rk.. The framework recognises the centrality of the federating units in implementation of education policy measures. The role of the Federal Ministry of Education will be that of a coordinator and facilitator so as to ensure sectoral and geographic uniformity uniformity in achievement of educational g goals oals nationally. A shift 1

 National Education Policy: Policy: 1998-2010, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1998.



 National Education Education Policy 2009

has been made by making the National Education Policy a truly ‘national’ document and not a federal recipe. For this, it has b been een recomm recommended ended that Inter-Provincial Education Ministers’ Conference (IPEMC), with representation representation of all federating units, will be the h highest ighest body to ov oversee ersee progress of  education in the country. In this respect, the Federal-Provincial collaborative effort remains the key to success. 7.

It has als also been pro rop posed to mak akee the document a “ dynamic document” that will “live” for an

indefinite period and bewhich subjected toproposed improvements improvements needed. units. IPEM will consider and approv approvee all such improvements can be by anywhenever of the federating 8. The pur purpos posee of the Po Polic licy y iiss to to cchar hartt o out ut a n nati ation onal al strate strategy gy for pur pursui suing ng imp improv rovem ement ent in education. educat ion. Man Many y of the policy ac actions tions ou outline tlined d have alrea already dy been ini initiate tiated d throu through gh reform reforms: s: most notably in the domains of curriculum development, textbook/learning materials policy, provision of  missing facilities. A number of initiatives are already being implemented by the provincial and area governments. The Policy takes account of these ongoing reforms and integrates them into its recommendations. The Policy is also em embedded bedded within the Islamic ethos as enshrined in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. 9. The The su succ cces esss of tthe he P Pol olic icy y wi will ll d dep epen end d on tthe he n nat atio iona nall co comm mmit itme ment nt tto o th this is ccau ause se.. Al Alre read ady y th ther eree has been a marked marked improvement in this sector, as all provinces and areas, as well as the federal government, have raised the priority of education. e ducation. This will now have to be matched with availability of  resources and capacity enhancement for absorption of these resources to improve education outcomes for the children of Pakistan. It is a long journey th that at has already begun. It is hoped that that the policy document will help give a clearer direction an and d help institutionalis institutionalisee the efforts wi within thin a nation national al paradigm.

-* - * - *-


Overarching Challenges & Deficiencies: Their Causes and the Way Forward  3


 National Education Education Policy: Overarching Overarch ing Challenge Challengess & Deficie Deficiencies: ncies: Their Cause Causess and the Way Forward  1.1


10. Edu Educat cation ion iiss a vi vital tal iinve nvest stme ment nt fo forr hum human an an and d eco econom nomic ic de devel velopm opment ent aand nd is iinfl nfluen uenced ced b by y the environment within w which hich it exists. C Changes hanges in technolo technology, gy, employment patterns and general g global lobal environmen enviro nmentt requi require re poli policy cy respo responses. nses. T Tradit raditions, ions, ccultur ulturee and fait faith h comb combine ine to refle reflect ct upon tthe he education system. The element of continuity and change remains perpetual and it is up to the society to determine its pace and direction. 11. Soc Societ ietal, al, p pol oliti itical cal and gov governm ernment ental al sstru tructu ctures res aalso lso det determ ermine ine aand nd d defi efine ne tthe he eeffe ffecti ctiven veness ess of  the educatio education n sys system. tem. A An n educa education tion p policy olicy canno cannott be pre prepared pared in iso isolati lation on from these re realiti alities. es. An education system needs to evolve with human society, and vice versa. 12. Cu Cultu ltural ral v valu alues es of tthe he m majo ajorit rity y of Pa Pakis kistan tanis is ar aree der derive ived d from IIsla slam. m. Si Since nce an eedu ducat cation ion ssys ystem tem reflects and strengthens social, cultural and moral values, therefore, Pakistan’s educational interventions need to be ba based sed on tthe he core values of religio religion n and fai faith. th. 13. The P Poli olicy cy re recog cogniz nizes es th thee im impor portan tance ce of IIsla slami micc val values ues aand nd ad adher heres es to the aagre greed ed p prin rincip ciples les iin n this regard. All policy interventions shall fall within the parameters identified in the Principles of Policy as laid down down in Artic Articles les 29, 30, 31 31,, 33, 36, 37 and 40 of th thee 1973 Con Constitu stitution tion of Pa Pakist kistan. an. Thes Thesee include the need for developing Pakistani children as proud Pakistani citizens having strong faith in religion and religious teachings as well as the cultural values and traditions of the Pakistani society. 1.2


14. Rec Recent ent sstud tudies ies o on n dem demogr ograph aphic ic tr trend endss rev reveal eal tthat hat eecon conom omist istss hav havee beg begun un to fo focus cus o on n the im impac pactt of changing age structure of the population. The interest in relation between population change and economic growth has again ca caught ught light due to th thee demographic ttransition ransition tak taking ing place in the developing devel oping coun countries tries.. IItt offers poten potential tial econo economic mic benefi benefitt from chang changes es iin n th thee ag agee str structu ucture re of the population during the demographic transition, owing to an increase in working age population and associated decline in the dependent age population. 15. Acc Accord ording ing to P Popu opulat lation ion Cen Census sus,, th thee dep depend endent ent pop popula ulatio tion n (b (belo elow w 15 y year earss an and d ab above ove 65 years) was 51.2% in 1981, and 53.1% in 1998 which according to UN population projectio projections, ns, fell to 42.7% in 2004 and will further fall to 38.3% in 2015. Similarly, the working age population which was 48.8% in 1981 and 46.9% in 1998 surged to 57.3% in 2004 and it is expected to reach 61.7% by 2015; demographic transition is taking place, though, currently at a slower pace. It poses an enormous challenge for the government to manage the economy in such a way that the demographic transition benefits Pakistan. 1.3


16. 16. The The iim mpe pera rati tiv ve o off u uni nifo form rmit ity y iin nP Pak akiistan’s educational system flows from the Constitution of  Pakistan, which entrusts the State with the responsibility of organizing an equitable and effective education system, with an aim to enhance the overall well being of Pakistanis. The national educational



 National Education Education Policy 2009

systems in different countries have evolved with the State in such a way that they appear to flow from each other. That is the reason modern States have one educational system, customarily called the ‘national educational system’. No other system in a  State, except the national educational system, shares the ideals, objectives, and purposes of a State. The institution of Education in fact, acts as the repository of the trust that the citizens have in the State, mediating the achievements of the past with the aspirations of the future for all citizens of any given State. It is this correlation between the State and the Educational System, which bestows a singularity to the natio national nal education educational al system system,, making it a unified and unifying entity. promote andmodes protectof this uniformity, national the educational strive to establish a uniformity inTo structu structures res and education educatio n throughout cou country. ntry. systems Aware of the importance of the local cultural context, the new National Education Policy supports the reflection of  the local cultures through curricula. As the national educational systems also evolve as a response to particular demands of distinct ethnic, social, economic, religious, political groups and communities, there is always room for diversity. This diversity can lend strength to the educational outcomes, especially in a federation like Pakistan, if this does not work at cross purposes with the harmonising uniformities. 17. The eemer mergen gence ce and ccon ontin tinued ued p pres resenc encee of pa paral rallel lel ssyst ystem emss of edu educat cation ion iin n Pak Pakist istan an i. i.e., e., pr priv ivate ate schools and Madaris, violate violate the principle of the uniform uniformity ity of the educational system system .The Policy is conscious consc ious of the hi histor storical ical co context ntext wh which ich fav favoured oured th thee emerg emergence ence of the these se paral parallel lel sys system tems. s. It, therefore, endeavours to encou encourage rage these system systemss to blend in the national education educational al system in a manner that they strengthen the un uniformity iformity of the natio national nal educational system system,, especially in terms of  curricu curr icula, la, edu educat cation ional al sta standa ndards rds,, cos costs ts and con condit dition ionss and lea learni rning ng env enviro ironm nment ent.. 18. Prov Provision ision of eeducat ducationa ionall se service rvicess is is es essent sentially ially a pu public blic funct function. ion. The Con Constitu stitution tion of P Pakis akistan tan expects the public sector to take lead in performing this public function. The relative failure of the State’s educational system has resulted in the emergence of the alternative education provider provider i.e. the private sector. The assurance of uniformity uniformity would rem remain ain the responsibility of the State. It can do so entirely on its own or can develop public-private partnerships to ensure that the uniformity in standards and purpose of education is not compromised. 19. Gov Govern ernanc ancee in th thee edu educat cation ional al sy syste stem m is v very ery w weak eak.. The E Educ ducati ationa onall Po Polic licy, y, in infor formed med b by y the ideals of of democ democratic ratic gov governanc ernance, e, imp implying lying a par partners tnership hip amon amongst gst the prin principal cipal so societa cietall actors in th thee making and implementation of public policy, would try to effect a better allocation and management of  public resources. 20. 20. The The u uni nity ty of ob obje ject ctiv ives es of our our eedu duca cati tion onal al ef effo fort rtss  –  whether   whether in the pu public blic or pr private ivate sector - is spelt through the overarching principles of access, quality, affordability and relevance. The way the Pakistani Pakis tani edu educatio cational nal sys system tem has dev developed eloped ov over er time, we can notic noticee a certain dis dispersi persion on of the objective of the unity manifesting itself in the form of parallel edu educational cational system systemss and their equivalence, and the issues of medium of instruction, and representation of minorities, etc. The Policy is guided by the principle of creating a minimum level of universal confo conformity rmity in order to protect the uniformity of the Pakistan’s educational system as a tool of social progress and of all round development in an increasingly increasingly globalised and com competitive petitive world. 21. Eng Englis lish h is aan n in inter ternat nation ional al llang anguag uage, e, an and d im impor portan tantt fo forr com compet petiti ition on iin n a glo global balise ised d wo world rld o orde rder. r. Urdu is our national language that connects people all across Pakistan and is a symbol of national cohesion and integration. In addition, there are many other languag languages es in the country that are m markers arkers of  cultural richness and diversity. The challenge is that a child is able to carry forward the cultural assets and be, at the same time, able to compete nationally and internationally.


Overarching Challenges & Deficiencies: Their Causes and the Way Forward  5



22. 22. Glob Global aliz izat atio ion n is not not a ne new w p phe heno nome meno non n but but it itss acc accel eler erat atio ion n in recen recentt y yea ears rs has has been been unprecedented. This has created opportunities and challeng challenges es for count countries ries the world o over. ver. An education system cannot remain in isolation of these challenges and opportunities. Unfortunately, a comprehensive national analysis and debate on the potential impact and possible benefits of  globalization has been a major deficit. Work that has been undertaken undertaken has been confined to the business sector. Even here, the feedback into the education system to develop a desired response has been missing. Other aspects of globalization like media and culture have been ignored. 23. The rrele elevan vance ce of eeduc ducati ation on tto o glo global bal ccom ompet petiti itiven veness ess can b bee see seen n in tthe he ta table ble ffrom rom the G Glob lobal al Competitive Index (GCI), given at the following page. Pakistan has been compared with its major competitors in an international context. (Higher the number assigned to a pillar, the lesser the performance.) GCI Pillars and Comparators China







Sri Lanka 82

1. Institutions


  Bangla   desh 121

2. Infrastructure







3. Macro-economy 4. Health and Primary

86 108

47 90

50 55

88 93

31 42

11 0 36

5. Higher Education & Trg.







6. Market Efficiency







7. Technological Readiness







8. Business Sophistication







9. Innovation







Pilla illarrs/ Pa Parram amet eteers

Pak Pakis ista tan n

Source: The State of Pakistan’s Competitiveness 2007, Competitive Support Fund, USAID, Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, 2007.


It ca can n be se seen en th that at in eedu ducat cation ion aand nd he healt alth h rel relate ated d ind indica icator tors, s, Pa Paki kista stan n fal falls ls be behin hind d all o othe therr

countries. It has to be realized that even the sustainability and improvement of other indicators depend on education. 25. 25. Im Impo porta rtant nt p pro rodu duct ctss and dr driv ivers ers of g glo loba bali liza zati tion on h hav avee bee been n te tech chno nolo logi gies es llik ikee th thee in inte tern rnet et aand nd satellite television. This impact has overtaken the perceptions of the policymakers, most of whom grew up in an era when these technologies did not exist. These are important tools of education as well as potential detriments to the objectives of national education. There has been no analysis to comprehend its potential impact on children both in the positive as well as negative aspects. 1.5


26. Edu Educat cation ion is not onl only y aabou boutt the the ind indivi ividu dual; al; it has a ssoci ocieta etall ro role le ---aa so societ cietal al rol rolee o off se selec lectin ting, g, classifying, distributing, transmitting and evaluating the educational knowledge, reflecting both the distribution of power and the principle of social contract. In a country with alarming inequities of  income and opportunities, opportunities, reducing the social exclusion needs to be one of the principle objectives of  of  the Policy. The educational sys system tem in Pakistan iiss accused of strengthening the existing inequ inequitable itable



 National Education Education Policy 2009

social structure as very few people from the public public sector educational institutions institutions have the potential to move up the ladder of social mobility. If immediate attention is not paid to reducing social exclusion and moving towards inclusive development in Pakistan, the country can face unprecedented social upheavals. 27. 27. Almo Almost st aall ll tthe he p pas astt ed educ ucat atio iona nall po poli licie ciess ta talk lk aabo bout ut tthe he rrol olee of eedu duca cati tion on aass a to tool ol for for so soci cial al reform and social development. development. But all these policies have been unable to significantly contribute contribute to social inclusiveness by ensuring social mobility through education and training. Educational system is supposed to ensure the right of an individual to grow in income and stature on the basis of his/her excellence in education and training. 28. Une Uneven ven d dis istri tribu butio tion n of re resou source rcess and opp opport ortun uniti ities es an and d app appreh rehens ension ionss of sl slidi iding ng d down own tthe he sscal calee of poverty promote social exclusion. Increased social exclusion expresses expresses itself in different forms like ethnic strife, sectarianism and extremism, etc. Social exclusion or extremism is not exclusively a function of the curriculum, but a host of traditional factors like poverty, inequity, political instability and injustice contribute to it and it becomes a huge challenge that calls for a comprehensive response on urgent basis. 1.6



A key def defici icitt is tthe he ab absen sence ce of cclea learly rly articu articulat lated ed m mini inimu mum m st stand andard ardss fo forr mo most st ed educa ucatio tiona nall

interventions and their outcomes. Even where these are established, there is no measurement or structured follow up. As a result, impact of the interventions remains subject to anecdotes or speculation and the true picture never em emerges. erges. Since standardiz standardization ation has no nott been part o off the governance culture, relevant indicators have not been developed. developed. Only recently the National Education Education Management Information System (NEMIS) has begun the process of computing indicators. Though even these indicators are those that have been internationally identified and developed by UNESCO or some of the donors for cross-cutting international programmes like Dakar Framework of Action for EFA, indigenous requirem requirements ents on a scale have not been assess assessed. ed. 1.7


30. Rec Recent ently ly m many any n new ew in init itiat iativ ives es hav havee bee been n tak taken en by tthe he g gove overnm rnment ent ai aimi ming ng aatt pro provi vidin ding g mi missi ssing ng facilities. Traditional approach approach of improving in infrastructure frastructure and providing brick and mortar is no d doubt oubt necessary, but not sufficient for quality education deliv delivery ery and sustainable econom economic ic development in the existing burgeoning global competitive milieu. Some initiatives also focus/target on improving teaching quality and learning environment, building capacity of education managers and administrators, etc. Apart from the Ministry of Education, many other initiatives have been launched in the recent past by different Ministries, organizations and departments like National Commission for Human Development (NCHD), Higher Education Commission (HEC), National Vocational & Technical Education Commission (NAVTEC), Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education (MoSW&SE) and Labour & Manpow Manpower er Division, to dev develop elop the Human R Resource esource of Pakistan in a bid to meet the emerging challenges. 31. It has bee been no obse bserve rved d tthat hat so some me of tthes hesee iini nitia tiativ tives es are wor worki king ng in iso isolat lation ion of eac each ho othe ther, r, thu thuss not adding much value to the national objectives. These programmes need to be dovetailed in such a way that their impact impact is multipl multiplied ied and we get maximum return on our inv investment estment and efforts. There is a need of of coor coordinat dination ion at both the pro provinc vincial ial and fe federal deral level levels, s, whe where re thi thiss is no nott alrea already dy be being ing do done. ne. Also the issue issue of vertical federal programmes and projects sho should uld be reasse reassessed ssed as these currently have little or no ownership from the provincial governm governments. ents.


Overarching Challenges & Deficiencies: Their Causes and the Way Forward  7



32. Intern Internati ationa onall dev develo elopm pment ent p part artner nerss are p prov rovidi iding ng g gener enerous ous sup suppor portt to tthe he ed educa ucatio tion n se secto ctorr in Pakistan. Pakis tan. Dono Donors rs have diffe different rent prior priorities ities in term termss of progr programm ammatic atic emph emphasis asis and geog geographi raphical cal coverage. covera ge. At tim times es their pro projects jects ov overlap erlap in an uncom uncomplim plimentary entary mann manner er or their pro program grammati maticc focus and emphasis bring limited value addition to the objectives of the Government. Getting optimum value from these investments investments has become a challenge in the absence of ins institutionalized titutionalized m mechanisms echanisms for donor coordination. In order to help and optimize the partnership with international development agencies, it is important important to review the gu guiding iding national p policy olicy framework, and refine it to meet th thee national goals. 1.9


33. Pak Pakist istan an ha hass ma made de pr prog ogress ress on a n num umber ber o off edu educat cation ion ind indica icator torss in rrecen ecentt yea years rs b but ut tther heree is sstil tilll a huge gap to fill. Access to educationa educationall opportunities rem remains ains low and the qual quality ity of education is poor, not only in relation to Pakistan’s own aspirations aspirations but also in interna international tional com comparisons parisons with the reference countries. As the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) shows Pakistan’s performance is weak  on the health and education related elements of competitiveness, when compared with its major competitors like India, China, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Malaysia2. 34.

On tthe he E Edu ducat cation ion Dev Develo elopm pment ent Ind Index, ex, w whic hich h comb combine iness al alll ed educa ucatio tional nal acc access ess m meas easure uress 3

Pakistan lies at tthe Pakistan he bott bottom om with B Bangla angladesh desh and iiss consid considerably erably lower than Sri La Lanka nka . A similar picture emerges from the g gross ross enrolment ratios tha thatt combine all educati education on sectors and by the adu adult lt literacy rate measures. The overall Human Development Index (HDI) for Pakistan stands at 0.55, which is marginally better than Bangladesh and Nepal but poorer than other countries in the region 4. The report also shows that while Pakistan’s HDI has improved over the years the rate of progress in other  countries has been higher. Bangladesh, starting at a lower base has caught up, while other countries have further improved upon their relative advantage. 1 . 10


35. The There re ar aree tw two o fu funda ndame menta ntall cau causes ses for the w weak eak per perfor forma mance nce o off th thee edu educat cation ion sec sector tor:: (i) lac lack k of  commitment to education –  the  the commitment gap; and (ii) the implementation gap that has thwarted the application of policies. The two gaps are linked in practice: a lack of commitment leads to poor implementation, but the weak implementation presents problem of its own. 1.10.1 The Co Commitmen mmitmentt Gap 36. 36. The The lo low w le leve vell of re reso sour urce cess al allo loca cate ted, d, aand nd eeve ven n le less sser er u uti tili lize zed, d, st stan and d in ssha harp rp ccon ontr tras astt to tthe he commitment required by the policy statements which set up ambitious goals for the sector. The national emphasis on education goes back to the enshrining of the right to education in the Constitution.


The State of Pakistan’s Competitiveness 2007, Competitiv Competitivee Support Fund, USAID, Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, 2007 3 Human Development Report 2007/2008, UNDP, 2007 4




 National Education Education Policy 2009

37. The ccon ontra trast st b betw etween een the vis vision ion and the com commi mitme tment nt h has as b been een poi pointe nted d ou outt by the Plann Planning ing Commission: “We cannot spend only 2.7 % of our GDP on education and expect to become a vibrant knowledge economy”5. 38. 38. The The ccom omm mitm itment ent g gap ap coul could d be ca caus used ed by two two ffac acto tors rs:: ((i) i) la lack  ck   of belief in education’s true worth for socio-economic and human-centered development; and/or (ii) a lack of belief in the credibility of the goals themselves. In regard to the first, the analysis done during the policy review, including reviewing recent international research and policy experience, confirms the potent role education can play in achieving economic growth and social development. On this basis, the commitment gap could not be caused by a lack of appreciation of the intrin intrinsic sic worth of educ education. ation. The lack of commitment to the policy goals itself may, therefore, be the real problem 1.10.2 The Imp Implementati lementation on Gap 39. The iimp mplem lement entati ation on g gap, ap, tthou hough gh lless ess w well ell d docu ocumen mented ted,, is b beli elieve eved d to b bee mo more re pe perv rvasi asive ve iin n tha thatt it affects many aspects of governance and the allocation and use of resources. One piece of evidence relates to the amount of developmental funds allocated to the sector that remain unspent. Estimates range from 20% to 30% of allocated funds remaining unut unutilised. ilised. The underlying causes may may lie in the lack of a planning culture, planning capacity and weaknesses in the accountability mechanisms. 40.

Ano Anothe therr ty type pe of im imple pleme menta ntatio tion n p prob roblem lem sur surfac faces es in the cor corrup ruptio tion n tthat hat per perver verts ts the ent entire ire

spectrum of the system. Anecdotes abound of educatio education n allocations systematically systematically diverted to personal use at most levels of the allocation chain. Political influence and favouritism are believed to interfere in the allocation of resources to the Districts Districts and schools, in recruitment, training training and posting of teachers and school administrators that are not based on merit, in awarding of textbook contracts, and in the conductt of examinat conduc examinations ions and asse assessme ssments. nts. The perv pervasiv asivee nature of corrupt corruption ion refle reflects cts a deeper mala malaise ise where the service service to th thee studen students ts and lear learners ners is not aatt the forefro forefront nt of the tho thought ught and behav behaviour iour processes in operating the system. 1 . 11


41. Add Addres ressin sing g the ttwo wo u unde nderly rlying ing def deficie icienci ncies es req requir uires es a fu funda ndame menta ntall cha chang ngee in th thee thi think nking ing tthat hat informs education policy at all levels. The need for a paradigm shift is echoed in the ‘Vision 2030’ report of the Planning Commission, which calls for major adaptations and innovation in the education system. 42. The p para aradig digma matic tic sshif hiftt req requir uires es th that at th thee ob object jective ivess of th thee edu educat cation ion p poli olicy cy wo would uld b bee to se serve rve tthe he interests of students and learners rather than of those who develop policy or implement programmes. This is a very fundamental shift as it implies changes in all the important parameters of education policy: what educational provision to offer; who benefits from educational provision; what pedagogy and teaching and learning methods to employ; and how the resource cost should be shared among the stakeholders? Accordingly, the Policy recog recognises nises the need for reforms and makes makes recommendations for action in a wide range of areas, which are divided into two categories. First, there are system level reforms, which deal with issues such as the vision of the system, sector priorities and governance, and resources for the sector. The second set of reforms address problems that are specific to individual subsectors of education, ranging from early childhood education to adult learning. -* - * - *-



Pakistan in the 21  Century: Vision 2030, Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, 2007.


Filling the Commitment Gap: System Values, Priorities and Resources



 Filling the the Commi Commitment tment G Gap: ap: System Values, Priorities and Resources 2.1


43. 43. The The Co Cons nsti titu tuti tion on o off Pa Paki kist stan an af affi firm rmss an eega gali lita tari rian an v vie iew w of eedu duca cati tion on b bas ased ed o on n va valu lues es responding to the requirements requirements of econom economic ic growth. Article 38 (d) speaks o off instilling m moral oral values and of providing education to all citizens irrespective of gender, caste, creed, or race. Article 37(b) explicitly states that the State of Pakistan shall endeavour “to remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period”. Article 34 requires that “steps shall  be taken to ensure fu full ll partic participation ipation of women in all the sp spheres heres of n national ational llife”. ife”. It is in this p perspectiv erspectivee that Pakistan has made a commitm commitment ent to achieve six Dakar EFA Goals within the specified target dates. 44. 44. In co cont ntra rast st to th this is vi visi sion on fo forr eedu duca cati tion on,, the there re has has b been een li litt ttle le co comm mmit itme ment nt to purs pursue ue th thee ambitions of a National Educational Policy. Governance and management of education have fallen short of the commitments. As a consequence, Pakistan’s education system is afflicted with fissures t hat have created parallel systems of education and has performed poorly on the criteria of access, equity and quality. 45. As the ‘Vision 2030’ describes it, the reality on the ground is “the divide between the prevalent school structure and differences in levels of infrastructure and facilities, media of instruction, emolument of teachers, and even examination systems between public and private sectors. The rich send their children to privately run English medium schools which offer foreign curricula and examination systems; the public schools enrol those who are too poor to do so.” This divide can be further categorised across low cost private schools and the elite schools. There is another divide between the curriculum that is offered to the children enrolled in Deeni Madaris and the curriculum in the rest of the public and private establishments. There is also an unresolved and continuing debate on how and what religious and moral values to be taught through the educational system and how to accommodate non-Muslim minorities. 46. Pakistan’s commitment to universal primary education by 2015 under EFA Framework appears elusive on current performance, as participation is low and drop-out rates continue to be high. There T here are persistent gender and rural-urban disparities. Girls continue to remain under-represented in the education system, both public and private. The rural urban divide is stark on most indicators of school provision and participation, which becomes particularly attenuated in some Provinces and Areas. 47. 47. Fi Fina nall lly y, an ed educ ucat atio ion n ssys yste tem m ccan anno nott ex exis istt in is isol olat atio ion n o off tthe he chal challe leng nges es and and o opp ppor ortu tuni niti ties es provided by globalization. These are in the fields of business and commerce, technology, cultural values, identity and many more. Unfortunately, a comprehensive national analysis and debate on the potential impact and possible benefits of globalization has been a major deficit. 2.2


48. Rec Recog ognis nising ing the ccomm ommitm itment ent g gap, ap, a fi first rst p prio riorit rity y is a re reaffi affirm rmati ation on of tthe he fu fund ndame amenta ntall vis vision ion o of  f  education. educat ion. The abili ability ty to meet goal goalss and targets targets,, and the financi financial al and huma human n resourc resources es requir required ed to achieve these, follow close closely ly from the commitm commitment ent to a clearly articulated vision. 49. 49. Ther Theree aare re co comp mpel elli ling ng re reas ason onss for for a re reaf affi firm rmati ation on.. N New ew rese resear arch ch prov provid ides es conv convin inci cing ng evid eviden ence ce of education’s contribution to both economic and social development, which can be achieved



 National Education Education Policy 2009

simultaneously, because the processes of economic growth and social development are interlinked. There are close links between equity in educational opportuniti opportunities es and equitable income distribution and income growth. If the education system is constructed on a divisive basis, the divisions it creates can endanger long run economic growth as well as stability of society. 50. The ccont ontrib ributi ution on o off edu educat cation ion to eecon conom omic ic g grow rowth th o off so socie cietie tiess is w well ell eesta stabli blishe shed. d. A llong ong history of research has confirmed that each year of schooling contributes 0.58% to the rate of economic 6

growth . The evidence isnations not just the developed economies of the world but, importantly to the point, for the developing as for well. 51. Thi Thiss new rrese esearc arch h highli highligh ghts ts th thee pos possib sibili ilitie tiess of bo both th a vi vicio cious us an and d a vir virtuo tuous us ci circl rclee ope operat rating ing from equity of educational opportunities to equity of income distribution, and from social cohesion to economic growth. An affirmation of commitment to Pakistan’s egalitarian education vision in the service of all citizens and as a driver of economic and social development can help produce a virtuous circle of high level of human and social capital leading to equitable economic growth and social advancement. The education sector policies have to be reoriented if they are not to fall in the vicious circle trap. 52. The rreaf eaffir firma matio tion n of edu educat cation ional al v visi ision on rrequ equire iress a cchan hange ge o off mi minds ndset et tthat hat wou would ld p perm ermit it development of goals, policies and programmes in support of the vision. The Planning Commission’s ‘Vision 2030’ also argues for such change of the mindset, which commits to a new set of societal goals. The Ministry of Education has adopted the following vision:

“Our education system must provide quality education to our children and youth to enable  them to realize their individual potential and contribute to developm development ent of society and nation,  creating a sense of Pakistani nationhood, the concepts of tolerance tolerance,, social justice, democracy,  their regional and local culture and history based on the basic ideology enuncia enunciated ted in the

C onsti onsti tuti tuti on of of the I slam slami c Re R epub ublilicc of of P aki stan.” stan.” 2.3


To rev revita italiz lizee the ex exist isting ing eeduc ducati ation on sy syste stem m wi with th a vie view w to cat cater er to so socia cial, l, po poli litic tical al an and d spiritual needs of individuals and society.


To pl play ay a fu funda ndame menta ntall role role in th thee pres preserv ervatio ation n of th thee ide ideals als,, whi which ch le led d to th thee crea creatio tion n of  Pakistan and strengthen the concept of the basic ideology within the Islamic ethos enshrined in the 1973 Constitutio Constitution n of Islamic Republic of Pakistan.



To cr creat eatee a se sense nse o off uni unity ty aand nd na natio tionh nhood ood aand nd p prom romote ote tthe he d desi esire re to cre create ate a wel welfar faree St State ate for the people of Pakistan


To pr prom omote ote n nati ationa onall coh cohesi esion on by rresp espect ecting ing all ffait aiths hs an and d rel religi igions ons aand nd re recog cognis nisee cul cultur tural al an and d ethnic diversity.


To p promo romote te so social cial and cult cultural ural harm harmony ony throug through h the cons conscious cious use o off the educa educationa tionall pr process ocess..


To pro provid videe and ens ensure ure eq equal ual ed educa ucatio tional nal op oppor portun tuniti ities es to al alll cit citize izens ns of Pa Pakis kistan tan an and d to provide minorities minorities with aadequate dequate facilities ffor or their cultural and relig religious ious dev development, elopment, enabling them to participate effectively in the overall national effort.

 Equity, Quality and Economic Growth, Growth, The World Bank, 2007


Filling the Commitment Gap: System Values, Priorities and Resources 11



To d develo evelop p a self relian reliantt in indivi dividual, dual, capab capable le o off ana analyti lytical cal and o origin riginal al tthink hinking, ing, a res respons ponsible ible member of society and a global citizen.


To ai aim m at n nurt urturi uring ng th thee tot total al pe perso rsonal nality ity of th thee ind indivi ividua dual: l: dy dynam namic, ic, cr creat eativ ivee and ca capab pable le o of  f  facing the truth as it emerges from the objective study of reality.


To raise raise ind indivi ividua duals ls com commi mitted tted to dem democra ocratic tic and mo moral ral val values ues,, awa aware re of fun fundam dament ental al human rights, open to new ideas, having a sense of personal responsibility and participation in the productive activities in society for the common good.


To revi revive ve con confidenc fidencee in pub public lic sec sector tor edu educatio cation n syst system em by rraising aising the qu quality ality of educ educatio ation n provided in government owned institutions through setting standards for educational inputs, processes and outputs and institutionalizing the process of monitoring and evaluation from the lowest to the highest levels.


To imp improve rove ser service vice d delive elivery ry thro through ugh po politi litical cal com commitm mitment ent and st strengt rengtheni hening ng edu educatio cation n governance and management.


To dev develop elop a w whole hole o off sect sector or vie view w thro through ugh d develo evelopmen pmentt of a po policy licy and pl plannin anning g proc process ess tthat hat captures the linkages across various sub sectors of the education system.


To enab enable le Pak Pakistan istan tto o ful fulfill fill iits ts com commitm mitments ents to aachiev chievee Dakar F Framew ramework ork of A Action ction,, Education For For All goals and Millennium Development Goals relating to education.


To wid widen en acce access ss to ed educati ucation on for aall ll and tto o imp improve rove tthe he qual quality ity o off educa education, tion, p partic articularl ularly y in its dimension of being relevant to the needs of the economy economy..


To eequali qualize ze aaccess ccess to ed educati ucation on tthroug hrough h pr provis ovision ion of basic facil facilities ities for girl girlss and boys alike alike,, under-privileged/marginalized under-privileged/m arginalized groups and special children and ad adults. ults.


To eradi eradicate cate ill illiter iteracy acy with within in the sho shortest rtest p possi ossible ble tim timee throug through h univ universali ersalizing zing o off qualit quality y elementary education coupled with institutiona institutionalized lized adult literacy programmes.


To en enable able aan n ind individ ividual ual to ear earn n his his/her /her livel livelihood ihood hones honestly tly throu through gh sk skills ills that contr contribute ibute to the national national econo economy my and enab enables les him him/her /her to mak makee informe informed d choic choices es in life.


To lay em emphasis phasis o on n div diversif ersificati ication on from gener general al to ter tertiary tiary eeducat ducation ion so aass to tran transform sform the education system from supply-oriented to dem demand-driven and-driven and preparing the students for th thee world of work.


To enco encourage urage rresearc esearch h in hi higher gher ed educati ucation on ins institut titutions ions tthat hat wi will ll con contribu tribute te to ac accelera celerated ted economic growth of the country.


To org organize anize a n nation ational al proc process ess for eeducat ducationa ionall devel developm opment ent that will re reduce duce d dispa isparitie ritiess acros acrosss provinces and areas and support coordination and sharing of experiences. OVERARCHING PRIORITIES: WIDENING ACCESS AND RAISING QUALITY

53. The o obj bject ective ive o off edu educat cation ion is th thee dev develo elopm pment ent o off a sel selff rel relian iantt ind indivi ividua dual, l, ca capab pable le of aanal nalyti ytical cal and original thinking, thinking, a respons responsible ible memb member er of the community and, in the present era, a global citiz citizen. en. It is imperative to identify and, possibly define, the touchstone for development of the child as a member of society. Each culture has its own ethos that bears relevance for its individual constituents.



 National Education Education Policy 2009

The challenge today is to secure values without regressing into unnecessary anachronisms anachronisms and parochial insularity. The other relevance of education is its ability to provide the graduates with an opportunity to earn a living. Education should be able to increase the earning e arning potential of the individual who is literate; irrespective of the eventual vocation opted. 54. The for forego egoing ing articu articulat lation ionss of the eco econom nomic ic an and d so socia ciall g goal oalss ar aree ta taken ken by the Pol Policy icy as aan n appropriate basis for defining the priorities for the National Educational Policy. They lead to two overarching priorities. Given the important role of education as a key driver of economic growth and social advancement, the first policy priority is to widen access to education for all. Improving the quality of  education, particularly in its dimensio dimension n of being relevant to the needs of the econom economy, y, becomes an equally equall y imp importan ortantt stra strategic tegic pri priorit ority. y. 55. Thi Thiss Po Polic licy y doc docum ument ent iiden dentif tifies ies p poli olicy cy act action ionss in pu pursu rsuit it of tthes hesee two o over verrid riding ing o obje bjecti ctives ves.. These are divided into policy actions required at the system level and actions pertaining to specific specific subsectors of education treated across various chapters. Policy Actions:


Provinces and Area Governments shall affirm the goal of achieving universal and free primary education by 2015 and up to class 10 by 2025.


Provincial intermediate and Area Governments shall develop plans for thesefinancial, targets, including enrolment targets and estimates of achieving the required technical, human and organizational or ganizational resources.


The plans shall also promote equity in education with the aim of eliminating social exclusion and promoting national cohesion. Greater opportunities shall be provided to marginalised groups of society, particularly girls.


To achieve the commitments of Government of Pakistan towards Education for All (EFA) and the MDGs, inclusiv inclusivee and child-friendly education education shall be prom promoted. oted.


Special measures shall be adopted to ensure inclusion of special persons in mainstream education educat ion as well as in lite literacy racy and Techni Technical cal and Voca Vocation tional al Educat Education ion (TVE (TVE)) programmes.


Governments shall improve quality of educational provision at all levels of education.


National Standards for educational inputs, processes and outputs shall be determined. A National Authority for Standards of Education shall be established. The standards shall not debar a provincial and area government/organization from having its own standards higher than the prescribed minimum minimum..


Provincial and district governments shall establish monitoring and inspection systems to ensure quality education service delivery in all institutions.


Steps shall be taken to make educational provis provision ion relevant for the employm employment ent market and for promoting innovation in the economy.


Universities and research institutes shall place greater emphasis on mobilising research for promoting innovation in the economy.


Filling the Commitment Gap: System Values, Priorities and Resources 13


Educational inputs need to be designed with a comprehension of the challenges and opportunities related to globalization. Strategies shall be developed to optimize opportunities and minimize the potentially negative impacts.




Ref Reform ormss and priori prioritie tiess wi will ll n need eed tto o be p plan lanned ned in d deta etail il aatt va vario rious us lleve evels ls o off go gover vernm nment ent,,

including the cost requirements. Even in the absence of such detailedoutlay estimates it is easy to see that the required resources will exceed, by a considerable margin, the current of 2.7% o off GDP. 57. The n need eed for a hi high gher er lleve evell of alloca allocatio tion n co come mess fr from om the ffact act that that b both oth the vol volum umee and the quality of provision have to be enhanced simultaneousl simultaneously. y. Also, Pakistan starts from a smaller base lev level el of resource commitment, as is evident from a comparison with other developing nations. Policy Actions: 1.

The Government7  shall commit to allocating 7% of GDP to education by 2015 and necessary enactment shall be made for this purpose. Formula for proportional allocation (out of available funds) to different sub-sectors of education shall be evolved by the provincial/ area governments.


The Gov Governm ernment ent sha shall ll eexp xplor loree wa ways ys tto o in incre crease ase the con contri tribut bution ion of tthe he p priv rivate ate sec sector tor,, which at present contributes only 16 per cent of the total educational resources.


For prom promoting oting Publ Public-P ic-Privat rivate-Pa e-Partners rtnership hip in tthe he educa education tion sect sector, or, part particular icularly ly in the case of disadvantaged children, a percentage of the education budget as grant in aid (to be decided by each Province) shall be all allocated ocated to ph philanthropic, ilanthropic, nonnon-profit profit educational institutions.


A sy syste stem m of cchec hecks ks aand nd b bala alance ncess fo forr the pri privat vatee sec sector tor sshal halll be fform ormed ed to o ove verse rseee th thee issues of fees, fees, school sstandards, tandards, salaries of teachers, cconduct onduct and h hygiene ygiene etc.


Tot Total al res resou ources rces ffor or edu educat cation ion sh shall all b bee furt further her aaugm ugment ented ed by d deve evelop loping ing sstra trateg tegies ies fo forr inviting and absorbing international contributions. The Federal and Provincial/Area Governments shall develop consensus on needs and priorities with a focus on provinces and areas with weaker human development, for foreign assistance in education through comprehensive sector plans of provincial/area governments.


A sys system tem ffor or don donor or ha harmo rmoniz nizati ation on an and d im impro proved ved ccoor oordin dinati ation on be betwe tween en de devel velopm opment ent partners and government agencies shall be developed


The co cost st es estim timate atess for sserv erving ing aass the ba basis sis ffor or ed educ ucati ationa onall all alloca ocatio tion n sha shall ll be tto o ado adopt pt more comprehensive definition of the concept of “free” education. The term shall encompass all education re related lated costs includin including g expenditure on st stationery, ationery, school b bags, ags, transport and meals, which are, in general, not covered at present, and shall be applied as a basis of allocating funds on a needs basis for poor children.


Gover Governmen nmentt and educa educationa tionall iinst nstituti itutions ons shal shalll sstreng trengthen then plan planning ning and imp implemen lementatio tation n capacity to improve utilisation of resources. -* - * - *-


 “Government” includes includes different tiers i.e. federal, provincial/ area as well as district governments and the figure of 7% consists of allocation by all these governments.



 National Education Education Policy 2009


Filling the Implementation Gap: Ensuring Good Governance 15


 Filling the the Implem Implementation entation Gap:  Ensuring Good Good Gove Governance rnance 58. The P Poli olicy cy ha hass id ident entifi ified ed iimp mplem lement entati ation on p prob roblem lemss as o one ne of tthe he ttwo wo m main ain u und nderly erlying ing cau cause sess of poor performance of the education education sector. Implem Implementation entation problems, them themselves, selves, can be traced to several types of governance governance issues, which n need eed addressing: 1. Ab Abse senc ncee of a wh whol olee-of of--se sect ctor or vi view ew 2. Lack of policy coheren ence ce 3. Un Uncl clea earr ro role less in in fra fragm gmen ente ted dg gov over erna nanc ncee 4. Para Parall llel el sy syst stem emss of edu educat catio ion n (pu (publ blic ic-p -pri riva vate te di divi vide de)) 5. Widening structural divide 6. We Weak ak pl plaann nnin ing g and and manag anagem emen entt 7. Lack Lack of stak stakeh ehol old der part partic icip ipat atio ion n 3.1



The ed educa ucatio tion n sec sector tor h has as d divi ivided ded rresp espons onsibi ibilit lities ies at th thee Fed Federa erall lev level el an and d bet betwee ween n the F Fede ederal ral

and other sub-national administrations. administrations. At the Federal level, the responsibilities responsibilities for different elements of the education are carved up between the Higher Education Commission (HEC), National Vocational and Technical Education Commission (NAVTEC) and the Ministry of Education (while other Ministries also run individual establishments and trusts). This splitting up within education also exists at the Provincial level. In the Punjab, the Depa Department rtment for Literacy and Non-form Non-formal al Education is sepa separate rate from the Provincial Education Department. In Balochistan, Literacy comes under the Social Welfare Department, and so on. There is no mechanism for developing a whole-of-sector view provincially as well as the national level. Policy Actions:



A ccom ompre prehen hensiv sivee H Hum uman an Res Resour ource ce Dev Develo elopm pment ent (HR (HRD) D) pol policy icy sha shall ll be dev develo eloped ped integrating all types and branches of HRD institutions from Early Childhood Education (ECE) to tertiary education. The policy must keep market needs in view, including the flexibility in market trends, for Higher and Technical and Vocational Education.


Org Organi anizat zation ional al fra fragm gment entati ation on of ed educa ucatio tion n at fed federa erall and pr provi ovinci ncial al lev levels els sshal halll be assessed for rationalisation and where feasible various streams, including literacy, shall be managed by one organization.


Sec Sector tor-w -wide ide pl plann anning ing sshal halll be coco-ord ordina inated ted b by y the M Min inist istry ry of Ed Educa ucatio tion n in or order der tto o bri bring ng together responsibilities for different sub-sectors of education, training and learning.


60. Edu Educat cation ion p poli olicie ciess hav havee ma major jor iinte nterse rsecti ctions ons w with ith o oth ther er po polic licies ies aatt the nat nation ional al le level vel aand nd ssububnational levels. Policies for early childhood education (ECE) are closely linked to social welfare policies; education and skills for the labour market figure as a factor with employment, labour, economic and regional development policies. Policies in the higher education area, likewise, are closely linked with innovation, growth and industrial policies. They point to the need for coherence across many policy domains. A whole-of-sector-view whole-of-sector-view is an essential input for achieving policy coherence.



 National Education Education Policy 2009

Policy Action:



The M Mini inistr stry y of Ed Educa ucatio tion n sha shall ll be re respo sponsi nsible ble ffor or en ensur suring ing ccohe oheren rence ce wi with th ot other her ssoci ociooeconomic policies of the Government


InterInter-Pro Provin vincia cial/A l/Area rea ex exch chang angee of stu studen dents ts and tteac eacher herss sha shall ll be en encou courag raged ed wi with th a vi view ew to promote cultural harmony, mutual understanding, tolerance, social integration and brotherhood.


A me mech chan anis ism m fo forr a stro strong ng co coor ordi dina nati tion on am amon ong g di diff ffer eren entt en enti titi ties es at th thee Fede Federal ral an and d Provincial Prov incial lev levels els shal shalll be develop developed ed to ensure har harmony mony amon amongst gst differ different ent subsub-secto sectors rs of  education, training and learning.


61. Gov Governa ernance nce o off edu educat cation ion iiss the o over verarc archin hing g fra frame mewor work k th that at de determ termine iness the abi abilit lity y of the the st state ate to meet its goals and targets; the responsibility to ensure that education of quality is available to all without discrimination. It cannot abdicate this responsibility to any other entity within (or outside) the country.. The state dispenses its responsibility in education through direct service delivery as well as country regulating the nonnon-state state participation in the sector. The largest pr proportion oportion of the service del delivery ivery in Pakistan remains with the public sector even as the private sector is growing. However, the current size of the private sector, including the propensity for continuous growth, call for a more inclusive approach to dealing dealing with educa education. tion. It requir requires es an appro approach ach that recog recognises nises the rrole ole of tthe he p priva rivate te se sector, ctor, its linkages with the rest and the possibilities of synergizing for improved outcomes. 62. Loo Lookin king g at tthe he ed educa ucatio tion n se secto ctorr ver vertic ticall ally, y, P Paki akista stan, n, llike ike m many any oth other er fe feder deral al co count untrie ries, s, h has as divided jurisdictional arrangements over education matters. Within a Province or Area Administration,  jurisdiction over education education is further divided across District District and institut institutional ional levels. Given these div divided ided  jurisdictions, it is essential that the demarcation of of responsibilities is clear. A lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities leads to unclear regimes of accountability and the possibility that responsibilities could fall between the stools stools of different levels of go government. vernment. 63. InterInter-tie tierr rol roles es ar are, e, in p prin rincip ciple, le, d defi efined ned iin n th thee Con Const stitu itutio tion n and iits ts re relat lated ed Or Ordin dinanc ances es i. i.e. e. th thee Local Government Ordinances (LGOs). However, details of interaction and demarcation of functions across each tier are missing because development of an effective federal system in the country has been hampered by centralization under dictatorial regimes. 64. 64. The The C Con onsstitu tituti tio on o off tth he cco oun unttry pl plac aces es edu educat cation ion in th thee C Con oncu curr rren entt L Lis istt aass a n naati tion onaal responsibility; which does not translate in into to a Federal responsibili responsibility. ty. It implies a collective national response of all the Provincial and Areas governments along with the Federal government as equal partners. The Federal Ministry of Education is required to co-ordinate and facilitate the process. 65. Con Consid siderab erable le am ambig biguit uities ies can can,, how howeve ever, r, ar arise ise in ho how w th thee pri princi ncipl ples es ar aree app applie lied d in p prac ractic ticee as the principles of responsibility-sharing can be open to different interpretations. In the past, there has been a perception perception that the Federal Government m may ay have overstepped its mand mandate, ate, while so some me voices from the Provinces see little role for the Federal level. 66. In cas casee of the pro provin vincia cial-d l-dist istric rictt inte interact raction ion,, tthe he Lo Local cal Gov Govern ernme ment nt O Ordi rdinan nances ces (LG (LGOs) Os) hav havee not spelt out any functional divide and each province continues continues with its ow own n interpretation of  bottlenecks. 67. 67. The The am ambi bigu guit itie iess tha thatt ca can n ar aris isee re rela late te not not on only ly to tthe he rela relati tion onss be betw tween een th thee F Fed edera erall an and d th thee Provincial Governments but also, under the Devolution arrangements, between the Provincial and


Filling the Implementation Gap: Ensuring Good Governance 17

District governments. The relations between the provincial provincial governments and the local governments governments are in transition and there are a number of issues that need to be addressed. The main problem arises from an administrative instead of a functional division of powers between the provincial and the Local Governments. Greater clarification will also be needed if decentralisation is pursued right to the school level. It is essential that different levels of governments should come together to articulate a clear understanding of inter-tier roles and responsibilities. 68. 68. This This proc proces esss ca can n b bee ai aide ded d by inst instit itut utio iona nali lisi sing ng th thee ro role le o off th thee In Inte terr-Pr Prov ovin inci cial al E Edu duca cati tion on Ministers’ (IPEM) Conference. Policy making shall remain a national function with participation from the Federal Government Government and th thee Provinces/Areas in a national forum. The role of the Federal Government should be that of a facilitator and coordinato coordinator, r, while the IPEM would oversee implementation. Policy Actions: 1.

To rrem emov ovee am ambig bigui uiti ties es b bet etwe ween en tthe he di diff ffer eren entt rrol oles es o off F Fed eder eral al aand nd P Pro rovi vinc ncia iall Governments in the field of education, their respective role and responsibilities shall be mapped and clarified through national consultative processes involving the federal government as well as provincial/area governments.


The The Fe Fede dera rall ro role le ssha hall ll be ttha hatt of a fa faci cili lita tato torr an and d co coor ordi dina nato tor. r. T Thi hiss sh shou ould ld aapp pply ly not not on only ly to the school level but also other levels and streams of education, including technical and


vocational education. The The Fe Fede dera rall Mi Mini nist stry ry o off Ed Educ ucat atio ion n sh shal alll be tthe he ffoc ocal al p poi oint nt ffor or d dev evel elop opme ment nt o off th thee National Education Policy through feedback from and consultations with the provincial and area governments governments withi within n the Impl Implemen ementatio tation n Fram Framework ework descri described bed in Chap Chapter ter 9.


The IP IPEM EM sha shall ll ov overs ersee ee tthe he im imple plemen mentat tation ion of Nat Natio ional nal Edu Educat cation ion Polic Policy y aand nd revi review ew its progress periodically.


An ove overar rarchi ching ng fram framewo ework rk sha shall ll be dev develo eloped ped to agg aggreg regate ate the ini initia tiativ tives es ttake aken n b by y the the Federal Education Ministry, provincial/areas education departments and organizations. All these initiatives sha shall ll be coo coordinated rdinated to leverage their ou outputs tputs in a manner tthat hat these respond to the emerging challenges of society and the economy including globalization, in a concrete way.


De Decen centr tral alis isat atio ion n ssha hall ll be p pur ursu sued ed at eeac ach h llev evel el o off gov govern ernan ance ce tto o devo devolv lvee deci decisi sion on ma maki king ng closer to the point of implementation and shall eventually move to the school level, which shall become the basic unit for planning, including school based budgeting.



Dec Decent entral ralisa isatio tion n wit within hin the the ffram ramewo ework rk of dev devolu oluti tion on sh shall all focu focuss o on n del delega egatio tion n of  educational functions and not merely on delegation of administrative powers. BRIDGING THE PUBLIC-P RIVATE DIVIDE

69. Exi Existe stence nce of in insul sulate ated d par parall allel el ssyst ystem emss of p publ ublic ic an and d pr priva ivate te ed educa ucatio tion n in P Paki akist stan an re rema mains ins a cause for concern as it creates inequitable social divides. divides. First, a small but importan importantt component of the private sector caters to the elite and offers high quality that only the rich can afford. Its long-term socioeconomic impact is divisive for the society, not the least in the relative neglect of improvements in the public sector. Second, Deeni Madrassahs form a component of the private sector. The parallel system in this case consists of a curriculum that lies outside the mainstream. Third, private sector establishments within the mainstream mainstream are not properly regulated, which can leave students unprotected. unprotected. They do no nott often register with the Provincial authorities as they are required by law and do not often comply with



 National Education Education Policy 2009

the regulations. Registered private schools often charge more fees than they are authorized to (the average household annual expenditure per student in a private establishment is reported to be four times greater). Similarly, private schools are being encouraged to offer admission and education services to 10% needy but meritorious students free of cost, a regulation that is not followed by most private establishments. Fourth, the curriculum and qualifications structures do not give a clear idea of their equivalence with public sector qualifications, which can put these students at a disadvantage. Finally, the public sector has failed to capitalise on the potential benefits of synergies from the growth in private sector. 70. Ove Overr the last last few yea years, rs, tthe he p priv rivate ate ssect ector or h has as b been een att attem empti pting ng tto o br bridg idgee the ga gaps ps an and d il ills ls o of  f  education system like inequitable access, poor quality, high drop outs etc. These efforts have sometimes been through formal agreements with the relevant governments and sometimes on an informal basis. It is being increasingly felt to institutionalize the arrangement to receive optimal results across ac ross the country instead of incremental incremental efforts in sporadic areas. The qu question estion arises as to where the private sector can assist. Practically, it seems in ev every ery possible educa educational tional input. The exact possib possibility ility would depend on the specific area or domain. Some of these inputs, inter alia, include (The list is not exhaustive, nor does it identify areas that are new to the concept.): 1.

School cco onstruction


Te Tex xtbooks developmen entt


Lib Librar raries ies d deve evelop lopme ment nt inc includ luding ing p prov rovisi ision on of sup supple plemen mentar tary y read reading ing m mate ateria riall


Teacher eed ducation




Food Food supp supple lem men entt to poor poor ch chil ild dre ren n


Literacy p prrogrammes


In Info form rmat atio ion nC Com omm munic unicat atio ion nT Tec echn hnol olog ogy y (IC (ICT) T)

71. 71. Ther Theree m may ay b bee ot othe herr fo form rmss al also so.. Al Alll of tthe hese se oppo opport rtun unit itie iess can can be evalu evaluat ated ed ffor or eeff ffic icac acy y an and d then implemented according to local conditions and requirements. Some options already operational in the country are: 1.

Vou Vouche cherr sys system temss in ex exist isting ing sch school oolss or ad adop optio tion n of ill ill-p -perfo erformi rming ng p publ ublic ic sc schoo hools ls (a (alre lready ady first practised in Sindh by Sindh Education Foundation and now on a larger scale, b by y the Punjab Education Education Fou Foundation ndation in poorer districts of the Punjab);


Using prem premises ises and/o and/orr fac facilit ilities ies o off th thee pub public lic sschoo chools ls ffor or h higher igher than the eexist xisting ing level of  schooling (first piloted by Punjab Education Department in 2003 and replicated by some other provinces provinces at a smaller scale);


Add Additi itiona onall serv service icess lik likee lit literac eracy y cen center terss afte afterr scho school ol ti timi ming ngss of the m morn orning ing sshift hift iin n the public sector schools (also (also initiated by the Federal Directorate of E Education ducation (FDE) in some Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) institutions in collaboration with Children Resource Resou rce Intern Internation ational, al, Islam Islamabad). abad). All thes thesee poss possibil ibilities ities,, as alrea already dy stated stated,, are being pursued in some form or the other.


“Adopt A School” programme, particularly by the corporate sector and philanthropists.

Policy Actions: 1.

Av Availa ailable ble eeduc ducati ationa onall reso resource urcess in th thee pri privat vatee sec sector tor sshal halll be ma mappe pped d and iinfo nforma rmatio tion n made available to all. The resources in this case would include more than simply private schools which are already part of the overall education census.


Filling the Implementation Gap: Ensuring Good Governance 19


Tra Transp nspare arent nt and and cle clear ar pro procedu cedures res sshal halll be in initi itiate ated d in th thee edu educat cation ion ssect ector or tto o all allow ow utilization of private sector inputs. Systems shall be developed through involvement of  all stakeholders: the public sector, the priv private ate sector and the community community;; keeping in view Ministry of Education’s document “Public Private Partnerships in Pakistan’s Education Sector”8.


Pro Provin vincia ciall Gov Governm ernment entss sha shall ll en encou courag ragee priv private ate ed educat ucation ion aatt the sscho chool ol le leve vell as an option available to those who can afford such education. At the same time, Governments shall take steps to encourage public sector institutions to draw benefit from the resources available in the private sector.



A com commo mon n curr curricu icular lar fr fram amewo ework rk in ge gener neral al as we well ll as p prof rofess ession ional al ed educa ucatio tion n sha shall ll be applied to educational institutions in both the public and the private sector. Government shall take steps to bring the public and private sectors in harmony through common standards, quality and regulatory regimes.


Whe Where re a priv private ate sc scho hool ol al alrea ready dy exist existss wit with h addi additio tional nal aadm dmiss ission ion spac space, e, the ch child ildren ren sh shall all be accommodated in it, through public financing and the public sector new school shall either be developed in separate vicinity or for different levels. Private Private sector schools shall be provided permission to operate on a need- cum- quality basis.


Pro Provin vincia ciall and Are Areaa Gove Governm rnment entss shal shalll deve develop lop re regu gulat lation ionss for est establ ablish ishing ing an and d runn running ing private sector institutions that include transparent accountability procedures. Where such


regulatory bodies have already been developed, those shall be reinvigorated. Pro Provin vincia ciall and A Area rea go gover vernm nment entss shal shalll tak takee step stepss to bui build ld ca capac pacity ity o off the reg regul ulato ators rs to enable them to effectively monitor compliance by private sector institutions institutions..


Non Non-p -profi rofitt edu educat cation ional al in inst stitu itutio tions ns sh shou ould ld be p prov rovide ided d tax iince ncenti ntives ves..


72. The There re ex exist istss th thee cha challe lleng ngee of eensu nsurin ring g a u unif niform orm sys system tem of ed educa ucatio tion n th that at p prov rovide idess a lleve evell  playing field field for chil children dren irr irrespectiv espectivee of their caste, ccreed, reed, ffamily’s amily’s ec economic onomic cap capacity acity and rreligion, eligion, aand nd in line with the fundamental rights and principles of policy as enshrined in the Constitution of Pakistan. As already discussed, broadly there are three parallel streams in education that have created unequal opportunities for children who manage to enter the education system. In addition there are sub-streams within each. The main ones ones are public sector school schools, s, private schools and Madrassahs. Madrassahs. Within both public sector and private private sector schools there are elite and nonnon-elite elite schools. The latter caters to th thee economic elite only only while the former like Cadet C Colleges, olleges, at leas leastt conceptually, allow talented ch children ildren of the lower middle classes also. These elite schools cater to a very small minority of school going children. The bulk bulk of lowe lowerr middle clas classs and poor children study in th thee non-elite low quality pr private ivate and public schools. Most of these schools fail to produce students who can compete for high end jobs to allow vertical social transition. 73. A num number ber o off fac factor torss lea lead d to tthe he di diffe fferen rences ces tthat hat all allow ow sstud tudent entss of th thee eli elite te sc schoo hools ls to do be bette tter. r. Management, resources resources and teaching quality are their m main ain strengths. M Most ost of these elit elitee schools follow the Cambridge or London University O/A level systems that have a different curriculum, assessment system and textbooks. A major major bias of the job market for white collar jobs jobs appears in the form of a candidate’s proficiency in the English language. It is not easy to obtain a white collar job in either the public or private sectors without a minimum level proficiency in the English language. Most private 8

Public Private Partnerships in the Education Sector: ESR Action Plan 2001-05, Ministry of Education, GoP, 2005



 National Education Education Policy 2009

and public schools do not have the capacity to develop the requisite proficiency levels in their students. English language also works works as one of the sources for social stratification stratification between the elite and the nonelite. Emp Employm loyment ent opport opportunit unities ies and soci social al mobil mobility ity asso associate ciated d with prof proficienc iciency y in the Engl English ish lang language uage have generated an across the board demand for learning English language in the country. 74. Dif Differ ferent ential ialss in qu quali ality ty an and d con conseq sequen uentt opp opport ortun uniti ities es of cchil hildre dren n als also o dep depend end o on n th thee loca locatio tion n of  the school, for example rural versus urban or large city versus small town. Children who join the nonformal stream also suffer and most fail to enter the mainstream. 75. The tthir hird d ti tier er of Mad Madras rassah sahss pl plays ays a rol rolee in a dif differe ferent nt ty type pe o off so socia ciall di divid vide. e. Yo Young ung chi childr ldren en educated in Madrassahs normally do not have skills that enable them to seek employment outside the realm of duties associated with clerics. This increases social tensions because of the sense of exclusion among children educated in these institutions. Policy Actions: 1.

The sstat tatee sha shall ll pr provi ovide de gr greate eaterr opp opport ortun uniti ities es to tthe he ci citiz tizens ens aand nd ar areas eas tthat hat h hav avee been largely excluded from mainstream development and participation in the national processes, by ensuring even and equitable human development across Pakistan.


Gover Governmen nments ts sshall hall ident identify ify schoo schools ls iin n less less devel developed oped areas for prio prioritis ritisation ation in rresour esource ce allocation and management for improving quality.


Min Minist istry ry of Edu Educat cation ion,, in con consul sultat tation ion w with ith Pr Provi ovinci ncial al an and d Area ed educa ucatio tion n dep depart artmen ments, ts, relevant professional bodies and the wider public, shall develop a comprehensive plan of  action for implementing the English language policy in the shortest possible time, paying particular attention to disadvantaged disadvantaged groups and less developed regions.


The cur curric riculu ulum m ffrom rom Cla Class ss I onw onward ard sha shall ll com compri prise se o off Eng Englis lish h ((as as a su subj bject ect), ), U Urdu rdu,, on onee regional language and mathematics, along w with ith an integrated sub subject. ject.


The P Prov rovinc incial ial and and Ar Area ea Ed Educa ucatio tion n Dep Depart artme ments nts sshal halll hav havee the cchoi hoice ce to ssele elect ct th thee medium of instruction up to Class V.


Eng Englis lish h sshal halll b bee us used ed as the me mediu dium m of ins instru tructi ction on for sci scienc ences es and ma mathe thema matic ticss from from class IV onwards.


For the first first five five yea years, rs, P Pro rovin vinces ces sha shall ll h have ave the opt optio ion n to tea teach ch m math athem emati atics cs aand nd sscie cience nce in English or Urdu/ official region regional al languag language; e; but after five y years ears the teaching of these subjects shall be in English only.


Opp Opport ortuni unitie tiess sha shall ll be p prov rovide ided d to childr children en fro from m lo low w soc socioio-eco econom nomic ic st strat rataa to lea learn rn English language.


A com compre prehen hensiv sivee sch schoo ooll lan langu guage age p pol olicy icy sshal halll be de devel velop oped ed in ccon onsul sultat tation ion w with ith provincial and area governments and other stakeholders.


Feder Federal, al, pro provinci vincial al and area g govern overnmen ments ts shal shalll dev develop elop jo joint int sstrateg trategies ies w with ith m main ain Madrassah systems, systems, through consultations, tto o formally integrate m market-oriented arket-oriented and skills-based subjects  in the Madrassahs’ curricula - subject subjectss that woul would d en enable able the children graduating graduating from Deeni Madaris to have wider employment options.


Filling the Implementation Gap: Ensuring Good Governance 21



76. Mod Modern ern day edu educat cation ional al ma manag nagem ement ent dem demand andss p profe rofessi ssiona onall sstan tandar dards ds and exp expert ertise ise for whi which ch the traditional policy m makers akers at the m ministries, inistries, education educational al managers aand nd the head teachers are unprepared. At the institutional level, planning also takes time away from teaching responsibilities. Recognising this, many countries around the globe are paying special attention to training potential educational managers from amongst teachers.. IIn n contrast, most persons holding management positions funct function. ion. Head teache teachers, rs, Distri District ct (DPIs) Educat Education ion in Pakistan’s education sectorDistrict have no training in thisand Officers (DEOs), Executive Officers (EDOs) Directors Public Instructions are mostly appointed from amongst the teacher cadre (college or school), without much management experience. 77. The sstra trateg tegies ies iin n reg regard ard to D Devo evolut lutio ion n req requir uiree con consid sidera erable ble sstre trengt ngthen henin ing g of pl plann anning ing ccapa apacit city y at all levels of programme development and delivery. An important requirement for planning is the availability of standards for both input requirements and educational outcomes, which is lacking at present. Good planning and monitoring through standards also requires data and indicators of  performance. These have been severely lackin lacking g at all levels of educational activity activity and performance. 78. Whi While le da data ta li limi mitat tation ionss hav havee been a rreal eal ccons onstra traint int iin n edu educat catio ional nal p plan lanni ning, ng, iinsu nsuffi fficie cient nt us usee of  data has been made made in decisi decision on maki making ng and plann planning ing eve even n when these have been av availab ailable. le. This is partly due to the culture of not using quantitative analysis and partly because the managers lack the required training. 79. Inf Inform ormati ation on bas based ed pla plann nning ing is also also tthwa hwarte rted d b by y p poli olitic tical al int interv ervent ention ionss tthat hat dis distor tortt d deci ecisi sion on making and impact merit and efficiency. Unless political interference and corruption are rooted out, social policies and plans would have low impact; and this is all the more devastating for the Education sector. Policy Actions: 1.

A m manag anageme ement nt cad cadre re for edu educat cation ion,, w with ith spe specif cific ic train training ing and qua qualif lifica icatio tion n rrequ equirem irement ents, s, shall be introduced.


Edu Educat cation ion ssect ector or m mana anagem gement ent sshal halll be lleft eft tto o th thee Edu Educat cation ion m manag anagers ers w with ithou outt any int interv ervent ention ion ffrom rom p poli olitic tician ianss and gen genera eralis listt civ civil il ser servan vants; ts; onl only y the then n the eeduc ducati ation on manag ma nagers ers can be hel held d acc accoun ountab table le for ou outco tcomes mes..


Edu Educat cation ion p plan lanner nerss and dec decisi ision on m make akers rs sh shall all be ttrain rained ed in the u use se an and d an analy alysis sis o of  f  educational statistics to develop the practice of information-based decision making and planning.


Co Confo nform rmity ity wit with h th thee nat nation ional al st stand andard ardss sha shall ll b bee the criter criterion ion for a rreal ealist istic ic as asses sessm sment ent o of  f  resource requirements as well as a fair and equitable basis for allocation across institutions.


A Pers Person onnel nel M Mana anagem gement ent IInfo nforma rmatio tion n Sys System tem ((PMI PMIS) S) as wel welll as Fin Financ ancial ial M Mana anagem gement ent Information System (FMIS) shall be developed to support the planning, implementation and evaluation function. These shall be linked to the existing Educational Management and Information System (EMIS).


Bes Beside idess coll collect ection ion an and d dis dissem semina inatio tion n of educ educati ation on sta statis tistic ticss of Pub Public lic se secto ctorr educ educati ation on institutions, its jurisdiction shall be extended to private education institutions as well as Non-formal schools all over Pakistan


A Nat Nation ional al St Stand andard ardss and C Cert ertifi ificat cation ion A Agen gency cy fo forr EMI EMIS S sha shall ll be es estab tablis lished hed tto o set set,, monitor and evaluate the quality of education, data collection, analysis and use across all



 National Education Education Policy 2009

levels and tiers of educ education ation manag management. ement. This ca can n be part o off a Nationa Nationall Standards Authority for Education, proposed earlier (ref: policy action action No. 7 under Section 2.4).



The P Prov rovinc incial ial and Are Areaa EM EMIS IS sshal halll ca cater ter tto o th thee da data ta n need eedss of aall ll ttier ierss of tthe he lloca ocall governments. It shall also provide data to NEMIS for national aggregation on a routine and timely basis.


A ssep epar arat atee da data ta b bas asee fo forr lit liter eracy acy sh shal alll be be de deve velo lope ped. d.


80. Effe Effecti ctive ve im imple pleme menta ntatio tion no off p poli olicie ciess iiss str streng engthe thened ned if the stakeh stakehold olders ers hav havee o own wnersh ership ip of the policies. One weakness weakness of the gov governance ernance regime in P Pakistan akistan has been its weak performance in allowing all stakeholders to have a say in policy dev development elopment and implementation: implementation: the most ssignificant ignificant set being the community. community. Most stakeholders consulted during policy developm development ent were of the view that various experiments with School Management Committees (SMCs) or Parent Teachers Associations (PTAs) have had limited success. Most cases of success are either owed to a dynamic head teacher or a local non-government organization that provides an interface between community and the school. 81. In m most ost ru rural ral aarea reas, s, th these ese o orga rganiz nizati ations ons aare re co contr ntroll olled ed by p poli olitic ticall ally y in influ fluent ential ial p pers ersons ons w who ho have little interest in school improvement. In other cases, finances remain unutilised because of fear of  audit. Also, most head teachers have no training in working with communities and are unprepared for capitalising on the potential of SMCs. The main obstacle to greater success remains the lack of  acceptance and comprehension of the concept at both the community as well as school level. 82. For the New Edu Educat cation ion Po Polic licy y to suc succee ceed d it has to b bee a co colla llabor borati ative ve eexer xercis cisee wi with th tthe he stakeholders, at all levels of education, policy developm development ent and programme delivery. Policy Actions: 1.

Sch School ool M Mana anagem gement ent Co Comm mmitt ittees ees (S (SMC MC)) sha shall ll be st stren rengt gthen hened ed thr throug ough h invo involve lveme ment nt of  students, teachers, educationists, parents and society (STEPS).


The The te tenu nure re o off th thee SM SMCs Cs ssha hall ll b bee en enha hanc nced ed,, so ttha hatt th thee m mem embe bers rs aare re ab able le tto om mak akee us usee of  their experience.


To pr prom omote ote g grea reater ter util utilisa isatio tion n of al alloc locate ated d fun funds ds,, Gov Govern ernme ments nts sshal halll mo move ve fr from om financ financial ial


audit to performance or output based audit system for SMCs. Hea Head d teac teacher herss sha shall ll be ttrain rained ed in ssoci ocial al m mobi obilis lisati ation on to iinv nvolv olvee the ccom ommu munit nity y effectively.


Awa Awarene reness ss ca camp mpaig aigns ns sh shall all b bee lau launch nched, ed, aatt the D Dist istric rict, t, Te Tehsi hsill and U Unio nion n lev levels els tto o sensitise communities ab about out their role in school edu education. cation. -* - * - *-


 Islamic Education 23


 Islamic Education Education 4.1



The ide ideolo ology gy of IIsla slam m fo form rmss th thee ge genes nesis is o off th thee St State ate of IIsla slami micc Re Repub public lic of P Pak akist istan an aand nd iits ts

fundamental principles were defined in the Objectives Resolution of 1949 as follows:

“Whereas sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone and the authority to be exercised by the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred sac red trust trust;; And whereas it is the will of the people of Pakistan to establish an order:

“Wherein the State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of  the people; Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed; Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Qura’an and Sunnah;” 84. The O Obje bjecti ctives ves R Reso esolut lution ion form formss par partt of th thee Con Consti stitut tution ion o off the IIsla slami micc Rep Republ ublic ic of P Paki akista stan, n, 1973. According to the Constitution, Pakistan is a Federal Republic to be known as the  Islamic  Republic of Pakistan wherein the Muslims Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individua individuall and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Qura’an and the Sunnah.9 The Constitution further stipulates that the State shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan, to make the teaching of the Holy Qura’an and Islamiyat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language and to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Qura’an and to promote unity and the observance of the Islamic moral standards10.

85. Pak Pakist istan an iiss cu curren rrently tly eng engage aged d in tthe he pr proce ocess ss o off rev review iewing ing,, upd updati ating ng aand nd rrefo eform rming ing sch school ool curriculum from Early Childhood Education up to Higher Secondary School levels keeping in view the Islamic teachings and ideology of Pakistan, cultural and religious sensitivities in the country and modern emerging trends to make the whole education purposeful purposeful and to create a just civil society that respects diversity of views, beliefs and faiths.

86. Islami Islamiyat yat is b bein eing g ta taug ught ht as a com compul pulsor sory y co core re su subje bject ct fr from om E Earl arly y Ch Child ildhoo hood d Ed Educa ucatio tion n to Higher Secondary School levels extending up to graduation in all general and professional institutions so as to create a tolerant and peace loving society with vision of finding solutions to the real life


 Article 2A: The Objectives Resolution, of the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973


 Article 31(2) (a) (b): Islamic Way of Life, of the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973



 National Education Education Policy 2009

problems through the teachings of the  Holy Qura’an and Sunnah. To further augment Islamic teachings, Advanced Islamic Studies, as an elective subject, has also been introduced at Grades IX-X and XI-XII. Policy Actions: 1. The obje objectiv ctives es of teachi teaching ng of Isla Islamiya miyatt shall be to ens ensure ure that al alll Musl Muslim im chil children dren are pro provide vided d opportunities to learn and apply the fundamental principles of Islam in their lives with the purpose of reformation and development of society on the principles of the Qura ’an and Sunnah. 2. Islam Islamiyat iyat sha shall ll be taug taught ht as a comp compulsory ulsory ssubjec ubjectt from Grad Gradee I to Grade XII (F (For or Grades I an and d II as an integrated subject and from Grade III onwards as a separate subject), extending up to graduation in all general and p professional rofessional institutions. institutions. Non-Muslim students sha shall ll not be required to read lessons/pages on Islam in the textbook of integrated subject for Grades I and II. 3. The Is Islami lamiyat yat Cu Curricul rriculum um sh shall all be di divided vided into fi five ve mai main n topic topicss as unde under: r: a.  Al-Quran Al Kareem. b.  Imaniyat and Ibadat . c.


d.  Ethics and Good Behaviour Behaviour (towards others) others) –  Haqooq-ul-Ibaad   Haqooq-ul-Ibaad . e. Prominent Personalities of Islam. 4. Adva Advanced nced Is Islami lamicc Studi Studies es shal shalll be offer offered ed as an elec elective tive ssubjec ubjectt at Grade Gradess IX-X an and d XI-XII. 5. Prov Provisio ision n shall be m made ade for teac teaching hing o off the subj subject ect of Eth Ethics/M ics/Moral oral Edu Educatio cation n in lieu of  Islamiyat to non-Muslim children and subject specific teachers, where possible, shall be appointed according to the requirements. 6. Indiv Individual idualss desirou desirouss of pursui pursuing ng high higher er educat education ion in Isla Islamic mic Sci Sciences ences sh shall all be encou encouraged raged an and d scholarships shall be provided to outstanding students to pursue higher education in Islamic institutes of repute, both at home and abroad. 7. Well qu qualifi alified ed teach teachers ers shal shalll be appoin appointed ted for tea teaching ching o off Islam Islamiyat iyat and Ar Arabic abic and tra training ining programmes for Islamiyat and Arabic for in-service teachers shall be organized by teacher training institutions. 8. Islam Islamic ic teachin teachings gs shal shalll be made the part of tea teacher cher trai training ning cu curricu rricula la and the curri curricula cula of othe otherr training institutions. 9. Arrang Arrangemen ements ts shall be m made ade for prin printing ting of rare bo books oks on Is Islam, lam, chart chartss and mate materials rials rel relating ating tto o Islamic injunctions and their distribution amongst libraries of schools, colleges, universities, research institutions and Deeni Madaris. 10. It shall be ensured th that at textual and other lea learning rning materials do no nott contain anyth anything ing repugnant to Islamic injunctions and controversial material against any a ny sect or religious/ethni religious/ethnicc minorities. 11. The Institutes of Educati Educational onal Research in Univ Universities ersities in collaboration wi with th Departments of  Islamic Studies shall commission research on Islamiyat Curriculum and recommending strategies for making it more relevant to the needs of the ever changing society.


 Islamic Education 25

12. Deeni Madaris shall be mainstreamed by introducing contemporary studies alongs alongside ide the curricula of Deeni Madaris to enhance prospects of their students to pursue higher studies, research and excellence and to ensure employment, recognition and equivalence. 13. Madra Madrassah ssah Edu Educatio cation n authori authority ty shall be est establis ablished hed by the Federa Federall Govern Governmen mentt with the following mandate: a.

Prov Provide ide an oppo opportuni rtunity ty for all ex existin isting g and futu future re Madar Madaris is to exce excell and enhan enhance ce the services they already provide to the nation.

b. Arrang Arrangee funds for educ education ation aand nd soci socio-ec o-econom onomic ic welf welfare are of stu student dents. s. c.

Prov Provide ide infr infrastru astructure cture and eequipm quipment ent for im improvem provement ent of exis existing ting fa facili cilities. ties.

d. Prov Provide ide fu further rther train training ing to en enhance hance skil skills ls of teach teachers. ers. e.

Prov Provide ide supp support ort in voc vocation ational al train training ing to equ equip ip stud students ents to g generat eneratee incom income. e.


Prov Provide ide advi advice ce and as assista sistance nce in str streaml eamlining ining p polic olicies, ies, ob objecti jectives ves and sy syllabi llabi tto o give graduates a competitive edge in the job market and for placement in institutions of  higher education.

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 National Education Education Policy 2009


 Broadening the Base Base and Achieving Access 27


 Broadening  Broadenin g the Bas Basee and A Achieving chieving Access 87. Quality of education has been a major casualty of the system’s inefficiency. The biggest victim has been the public education system; but quality cannot be assumed as given even in the private schools. Efforts to increase enrollments are not sustainable in the absence of quality education in the country. Reprioritization of quality can only be initiated with a common understanding of the term and then focusing on the major imports that impact it; these being curriculum, textbooks and learning materials, assessments, teachers and the learning environment available in an educational institution. 88. Bro Broaden adening ing the b base ase w with ith qua qualit lity y is tthe he m most ost ccent entral ral sstra trateg tegic ic ed educa ucatio tion n po polic licy y pri priori ority. ty. T The he superstructure of the knowledge society cannot be erected without a wide and high quality base that can feed quality human resources into all walks of societal endeavour. This chapter sets reforms for widening the base of education at the foundation level, in the areas of early childhood, primary and secondary education. Since much of non-formal and adult learning is also concerned with the foundation level learning, the chapter also presents reforms and policy actions for f or this sector. 5.1


89. His Histor torica ically lly,, ECE has no nott b been een for forma mally lly reco recogni gnized zed by the pub public lic sec sector tor in P Paki akista stan. n. The traditional ‘katchi’ class in some public sector schools has predominantly re mained a familiarization stage towards formal schooling for un-admitted, young students. A limited part of the Grade I National Curriculum is taught to this group. 90. Against this background, for the first time in Pakistan’s history, ECE was included as a component in the Education Sector Reforms programme and funding was provided to the provincial and district governments. ECE was also included in the National Plan of Action of Education for All. Pakistan is committed to the Dakar Framework of Action, the first goal of which is to expand and improve comprehensive comprehensive ECE for all children, espec especially ially for the most vu vulnerable lnerable and disadvant disadvantaged. aged. A curriculum for ECE has also been developed. 91. Pro Progre gress ss h has as be been en ac achie hieved ved ov over er th thee la last st fe few w ye years, ars, as n note oted d in A Anne nnexx- A A,, but ffurt urther her aacti ction on iiss required in three areas to improve provision of ECE across the country: (i) wider participation; (ii) better quality; and (iii) improved governance. Policy Actions: 1.

Im Impro provem vement entss in qu quali ality ty of E ECE CE sh shall all be b base ased d on a co conce ncept pt of h holi olisti sticc dev develo elopm pment ent o of  f  the child that provides a stimulating, interactive environment, including play, rather than a focus on regimes that require rote learning and rigid achievement standards.


EC ECE E age g grou roup p sha shall ll b bee rec recog ognis nised ed as ccom ompri prisin sing g 3 to 5 y year ears. s. At lleas eastt one y year ear p prereprimary education shall be provided by the State and universal access to ECE shall be ensured within the next ten years.


Pro Provis vision ion o off ECE sshal halll be at attac tached hed tto o pri prima mary ry sc schoo hools ls wh which ich sshal halll be pr prov ovide ided d wit with h additional budget, teachers and assistants a ssistants for this purpose.


For For ECE te teach achers ers,, a twotwo-yea yearr spe specia cialis lised ed tr train aining ing iin n dea dealin ling g wit with h you young ng ch child ildren ren sshal halll be a necessary requirement.



 National Education Education Policy 2009


This This trai traini ning ng sh shal alll b bee o on n tthe he ba basi siss o off th thee rev revis ised ed EC ECE E N Nat atio iona nall C Cur urri ricu culu lum m. Th Thee curriculum and support material for ECE shall take account of the cultural diversity of  particular areas.




Pri Prima mary ry eeduc ducati ation on is a we weak ak lin link k iin n ed educa ucatio tion n in Pak Pakist istan. an. The Policy Policy foc focus uses es aatte ttenti ntion on on ttwo wo

large and critical problems facing the sector: (i) low participation and narrow base of the sector; and (ii) poor quality of provision. 93. Des Despit pitee so some me pro progre gress ss in rrecen ecentt y years ears,, ac acces cesss ra rates tes rem remain ain low low,, as not noted ed in Ann Annexex- A. NE NER R at 66% for primary are the lowest compared to the selected reference countries. Even though 2005 rates have improved in 2006-07, Pakistan still faces the risk of defaulting on EFA 2015 targets. The narrow base is further attenuated through high drop out rates. The survival rate to Grade 5 is 72%. Of those who succeed in completing Grade V, there is a further loss to the system through those not making the transition to the secondary level. Pakistan cannot afford to live with the narrow base in the perspective of long term economic and social development of the nation. Policy Actions:



All chi childr ldren en - b boy oyss and and g girl irlss - sshal halll b bee b brou rough ghtt iins nside ide sch school ool by the yea yearr 2015 2015..


Off Offici icial al ag agee for pr prim imary ary ed educa ucatio tion n sha shall ll be 6 to 1 10 0 yea years. rs. Th Thee offi officia ciall age g grou roup p for ne next xt levels of education education shall also change correspondingly correspondingly..


Gov Govern ernme ment nt sha shall ll ma make ke eff effort ortss to pro provid videe the ne neces cessar sary y fin financ ancial ial rreso esourc urces es to ac achie hieve ve th thee EFA goals.


Whe Wherev rever er feasi feasible ble,, pr prim imary ary sch schoo ools ls shal shalll be upg upgrad raded ed tto om midd iddle le lleve evel. l.


Intern Internati ationa onall Dev Develo elopm pment ent Partn Partners ers sh shall all b bee invi invited ted th throu rough gh a wel welll-dev develo eloped ped pl plan an fo forr expanding school facilities.


Hig High h pri priori ority ty sh shall all b bee pai paid d to re reduc ducing ing tthe he dr dropo opout ut ra rates tes.. An im impor portan tantt ele eleme ment nt of tthis his effort should be to provide financial and food support to children who drop out because of poverty.


Food Food bas based ed in incen centiv tives es sh shall all be iintr ntrodu oduced ced to incr increas easee enro enrolm lment ent an and d imp improv rovee reten retentio tion n and completion rates, especially for girls.


Scho Schools ols shal shalll be made more attra attractive ctive for re retaini taining ng tthe he child children ren b by y pr provid oviding ing an at attract tractive ive learning environment, basic missing facilities and other measures.


Go Gove vern rnm ment ent shal shalll es esta tabl blis ish h at le leas astt two two “Apna Ghar” residential schools in each province to provide free high quality education facilities to poor students.


Every child, o on n adm admission ission in Grad Gradee I, sha shall ll be all allotte otted d a uniq unique ue ID th that at wil willl conti continue nue to remain with the child throughout his or her academic career.


94. The ssecon econdar dary y an and d hi highe gherr sec second ondary ary sscho chool ol ssyst ystem em p prepa repares res y youn oung g pe peopl oplee for li life. fe. IItt has two important roles in this respect  –  providing   providing skills to the labour market, as many students leave formal


 Broadening the Base Base and Achieving Access 29

schooling at this time; time; and providing input to the ttertiary ertiary system. The system does not provide an adequate base for both these functions. Quite apart from the quality of instruction at this level, a central question that Pakistan’s  education policy makers confront is the level of skill development and preparation that can be achieved ac hieved by twelve years of school education as a terminal qualification. 95. The pre presen sentt sy syste stem mh has as sshor hortco tcomi mings ngs in ttwo wo m main ain res respec pects: ts: it has a n narr arrow ow b base ase that that lleav eaves es a large nu number mber of y young oung pe people ople ou outsid tsidee the sys system tem and tthe he qual quality ity of sk skills ills it p produc roduces es does not appropriately the been needsoutlined o off the labour m market. arket. of the po policy licywith actions needed to address these concerns havematch already in section 5.2Some above, dealing elementary education. The additional reform initiatives de described scribed below are specifically meant for seco secondary ndary and higher secondary education. 96. Acc Access ess aand nd p part artici icipat pation ion rrate atess at tthi hiss lev level el of sscho chooli oling ng iin n Pak Pakist istan an ar aree low in co comp mpari arison son tto o reference countries. Pakistan’s national average ratio of secondary to primary school is 1:6 but, in certain parts of the country, it reaches the high figure of 1:13. There is a clear need for expanding the provision. At the same same time, efforts have to be made to cut the high high drop out rates and induce more out of school youths back to the school system, particularly girls, whose participation is still very low. Policy Actions: 1.

Pro Provis vision ion sshal halll be exp expand anded, ed, pa parti rticul cularl arly y in the rrura urall area areass and of sscho chools ols d dedi edicat cated ed fo forr girls. low. Priority shall be given to those locations where the ratio of secondary schools is


Stu Studen dentt sup suppor portt sha shall ll be iincr ncreas eased ed to p prev revent ent sstud tudent entss fro from m dro droppi pping ng ou outt of sch school ool ffor or financial reasons.


Sch School oolss sshal halll intr introdu oduce ce mor moree sstud tudent ent-ce -centr ntred ed ped pedago agogie gies. s.


Co Couns unsell elling ing ffaci acilit lities ies sh shall all b bee mad madee avai availab lable le to st stude udents nts ffrom rom tthe he ele eleme menta ntary ry le level vel onwards, in order to constructively constructively utiliz utilizee their energies, to deal with any displays of  aggression amongst young students and to address any other psychological distress that a student may be in, by suggesting a suitable remedy


Life Life Sk Skil ills ls-B -Bas ased ed E Edu ducat catio ion n (LS (LSBE BE)) sh shal alll be pr prom omot oted ed..


Co Couns unsell elling ing aatt hig higher her se seco conda ndary ry le level vel m must ust aalso lso ad addr dress ess th thee care career er co conce ncerns rns o off you young ng students and encourage them to take up studies as per their aptitude other than the vocational cational or any o other ther area of study “accepted” fields of study, be it technical, vo


Sch School ooling ing sh shall all al also so be ma made de mo more re attr attract active ive by aaddi dding ng com commu munit nity y serv service ice pr progr ogramm ammes. es.


Grad Grades es X XII an and d XI XIII sh shal alll no nott be p par artt of tthe he ccol olle lege ge llev evel el aand nd ssha hall ll b bee m merg erged ed with with th thee school level, forming part of existing secondary schools where needed and provision of  necessary human and physical resources shall be ensured. This exercise shall be undertaken after a detailed study of the failures of similar previous efforts.


A sys system tem ffor or ran rankin king g of pr prim imary ary an and d seco seconda ndary ry ed educa ucatio tional nal iinst nstitu itutio tions ns ac acros rosss the country shall be introduced with rankings based on result outcomes, extra-curricular activities and facilities provided to the students. This will encourage healthy competition amongst amon gst schoo schools. ls.



 National Education Education Policy 2009



To create an order for excellence in the country, a “National Merit Programme” shall be introduced to award bright students


97. Lit Litera eracy cy tr train aining ing aand nd no nonn-form formal al le learn arning ing ccan an be ttwo wo d diff iffere erent nt ty types pes o off act activ iviti ities, es, aalth lthoug ough h wit with h a large overlap. Non-formal learning can take the form of literacy training but it also includes a variety of other types of learning activities such as on the job skills training and traditional apprenticeships. Literacy programmes programmes generally cover adults and yo young ung people who are out of school. The non-formal learning includes these categories but also on the job learning that youths and adults might participate in, which may may not hav havee raising literacy levels as its p principal rincipal obje objective. ctive. 98. The There re ar aree mul multip tiple le ca cause usess of lo low w lit litera eracy: cy: soci social al taboo taboos, s, po pover verty ty,, chil child d lab labour our,, and iilli lliter teracy acy o of  f  the parents/families and institutional weaknesses. Efforts to combat illiteracy have been half hearted, disjointed and not suited to local conditions and requirements. At the provincial level, there is a lack of  uniformity in existing structures, and the set up varies from province to province. 99. 99. Ther Theree is aals lso o a qu ques esti tion on o off le leve vell of pr prio iori rity ty ttha hatt li lite tera racy cy p pro romo moti tion on me meri rits ts iin n the the pu publ blic ic b bud udge gett when resources are not available for for basic facilities in the the more productive primary primary schools. The case for improving literacy is based on both its economic and social benefits and considered trade offs with regular schooling, quite apart from the large benefit that accrue accruess to the indiv individual idual in the form o of  f  personal development. 100. In th thee econo economic mic ffield, ield, liter literacy acy sscores cores contr contribute ibute to h higher igher prod productiv uctivity, ity, a cont contribu ribution tion that is iin n 11 addition addit ion to the cont contribu ribution tion m made ade by year yearss of school schooling ing . A more literate person has higher participation rates in the labour labour force, is more likely to be an entrepreneur, entrepreneur, and is more open to adopting new techniques of production. A literate parent contributes to better leaning achievement for his or her children. 101. There are, as w well, ell, wide widerr so social cial benef benefits its of lliterac iteracy y th that at ha have ve b been een eestim stimated ated empi empiricall rically. y. Th There ere is a noticeable impact on health. A literate literate person is more more likely to have better health and incur incur low expenditure on health maintenance. Participation in civic activities and democratic processes are more likely with literacy than without. The most important social objective served by literacy is achieving greater social inclusiveness. 102. There are ffour our m main ain d diffi ifficulti culties es w with ith curren currentt li literac teracy y an and d non non-form -formal al le learning arning prog programm ramme, e, which need to be addressed. First, the quality of such programmes is variable as they are not regulated by some minimum quality standards. One reason for the often poor quality of the programmes is low quality of teachers, which is also not regulated. Second, a certification and accreditation regime is missing. There are no benchmarks or standards that can be used for assessing literacy programmes. As a consequence, it is difficult to link the certificate offered by these programmes to formal learning opportunities. Hence, graduates of these programmes find it difficult to enter into the formal sector. Third, current literacy programmes are also not well-linked to employment opportunities. Fourth, literacy liter acy progr programm ammes es are rarel rarely y found to be effec effective tive.. Policy Actions: 1.


Lit Litera eracy cy rate rate sh shall all b bee inc increas reased ed up to 86 86% % by 2 2015 015 tthro hroug ugh h upup-scal scaling ing of o ongo ngoing ing programmes of adult literacy and non formal basic education in the country.

 Equity, Quality and Economic Growth, Growth, The World Bank, 2007


 Broadening the Base Base and Achieving Access 31


Sust Sustainab ainability ility of aadult dult liter literacy acy and NFE prog programm rammes es sshall hall be ensur ensured ed b by y sstreng trengtheni thening ng organizational structure, coordination and enhancing budgetary allocation for this neglected sub sector.


Gov Govern ernme ment nt sha shall ll dev develo elop p a nati nationa onall lite literac racy y curr curricu iculum lum aand nd ide identi ntify fy th thee inst instruc ructio tional nal material, teacher training modules and professional development programmes to support the curriculum. The curriculum shall be objectives driven, so as to facilitate assimilation of trainees into mainstream economic activity, by imparting skills training as per local needs and market trends.


Gov Govern ernme ment nt sha shall ll dev develo elop p and enf enforc orcee min minim imum um qua quali lity ty sta standa ndards rds fo forr orga organiz nizati ations ons involved in literacy in the form of literacy certification and accreditation regime. The literacy providers shall be required to offer the literacy programmes according to the specified standards.


A ssys ystem tem sha shall ll be d deve evelop loped ed to m main ainst stream ream the stu studen dents ts of non non-fo -forma rmall prog program ramme mess iinto nto the regular education system, and a system of equivalence shall be developed to permit such mainstreaming. New literates shall receive formal certification so as to facilitate their entry into government schools.


Pro Provin vinces ces aand nd di distr strict ict g gov overnm ernment entss sha shall ll al alloc locate ate a m mini inimu mum m of 4% of eeduc ducati ation on b budg udget et for literacy and non-formal basic education (NFBE).


Lin Linkag kages es of no nonn-form formal al edu educat cation ion w with ith iindu ndustr stry y and in inter ternsh nship ip pr progr ogramm ammes es sha shall ll be developed to enhance economic benefits of participation.


Horiz Horizonta ontall linkag linkages es b betwe etween en sschool choolss and vocat vocational ional/ski /skills lls train training ing centre centress sshall hall be established.


Gov Govern ernme ment nt sc schoo hools ls shall shall iinit nitiat iatee non non-fo -form rmal al edu educat cation ion ((NFE NFE)) str stream eam ffor or ch child ild llabo aboure urers. rs. Children involved in various jobs or work shall be brought within the ambit of nonformal education education sy system stem through need-based sschedules chedules and tim timings. ings.


Natio National nal Ed Educati ucation on Fou Foundat ndation ion (N (NEF) EF) p progra rogramme mmes, s, curren currently tly in p practi ractice ce up to g grade rade 5 shall be expanded up to grade 10 10,, wherever required.


Speci Special al lite literacy racy sk skills ills p progra rogrammes mmes shall ttarget arget o older lder ch child ild lab laboure ourers, rs, boy boyss and gi girls rls (ag (aged ed between 14 and 17 years) between years).. Special edu educatio cational nal stip stipends ends sha shall ll be introdu introduced ced to rehabi rehabilitat litatee child labourers.


Arrang Arrangemen ements ts sha shall ll be m made ade to u use se scho school ol bui building ldingss (wher (wheree avail available able)) for adu adult lt lit literacy eracy after school hours.


Gove Governme rnment nt shall d develo evelop p guid guidelines elines ffor or pos post-pro t-programm grammee initia initiatives tives.. Regul Regular ar foll followow-up up shall be made a part of the literacy programs.


Steps shal shalll be tak taken en to en ensure sure th that at tea teachers chers ffor or adu adult lt lear learners ners an and d non non-form -formal al educa education tion are properly trained and have a well defined career structure allowing them to move into mainstream education.


Inte Internatio rnational nal Dev Developm elopment ent Par Partners tners,, comm community unity and priv private ate sec sector tor inv involve olvement ment iin n awareness programmes, content, design and availability of facilities, shall be mobilised.


32 5.5

 National Education Education Policy 2009


103. 103. Pak Pakist istan an has end endure ured d sseri erious ous em emerg ergent ent sit situat uatio ions ns in rec recent ent yea years rs ccaus ausing ing hum human an aand nd infrastructure losses on a large scale, the most significant being the earthquake of October 2005. The schools have been the the worst victim because the school infrastructure was structurally unp unprepared repared for the tremendous shock of an earthquake and the school adm administration inistration as we well ll as the stud students ents were not prepared to meet such kind of challenges. Although there were some provisions in the school curriculum and learning materials to address crisis andcould disaster related issues but due to non-availability of a proper mechanism,   the concepts not management be enforced appropriately. Pakistan’s education system has now recognised the need for preparation of individuals and groups to grapple with the demands of emergencies and disasters through organized and effective responses. Credible rehabilitation and disaster management plans need to be put in place to ensure early restoration of  education service. Policy Actions 

Awareness shall be raised amongst the students regarding emergency situations, natural disasters and school safety so as to enable them to take appropriate preventive measures and informed informed decisions in emergencies o orr crises.


Curriculum, especially of Social Studies, Geography, Languages, and Literacy shall include themes on emergencies, natural disasters and trauma management based on latest international best practices and shall also include information about response in an emergency or disaster.


Teacher education and training curricula shall include provisions to enable the teacher to address education in emergencies.


A repository of all emergency related materials, manuals, guidelines, minimum standards and research pertaining to education shall be maintained at the teachers training institutions, schools, colleges and universities.


National Disaster Management Authority shall provide guidelines and code of conduct to the building departments to construct school infrastructure according to the international standards.


The authorities in planning (at Federal Ministry of Education, Planning Commission and Provincial Provincial Pl Plannin anning g & Developm Development ent Departm Departments) ents) sha shall ll ensur ensuree that gui guidelin delines es and code of conduct for construction of school infrastructure regarding disaster have been followed while recommending the education projects for approval.


National Disaster Management Authority shall make available the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the educational institutions to follow pre and post emergency situations.


Disaster Management Plans shall include education delivery mechanism for rehabilitation.

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 Raising the Quality Quality of Education 33


 Raising the the Quality of Educat Education ion 104. There is aan n im impendi pending ng n need eed to de debate bate and agree on w what hat co const nstitute itutess qua quality lity at ea each ch st stage age o of  f  education and the system overall. Based on this, some standards will need to be defined and pursued through development development of policies, str strategies ategies and plans which target them them.. The recently comp completed leted National Education Assessment System (NEAS) 2007 points to significant quality deficits and confirms the widespread perception of the low quality of Pakistan’s education. Improving quality requires action in the areas of teacher quality, curriculum and pedagogy, textbooks, assessment approaches, and in learning environment and facilities. In developed countries, close to two thirds of children’s performance in early schooling depends on factors outside the school, namely on the home environment, the socio-economic status of parents, parent education particularly the mother’s, and the learning resources available at home12. Of the remaining one-third, teacher quality and leadership at 13 school are believed to be the more important factors . Most of the inputs in the system hav havee an impact on quality. quality. Howe However, ver, the there re are six basi basicc pillar pillarss that make the majo majorr contrib contributio ution. n. These are teache teachers, rs, curriculum, textbooks, assessments, the learning environment in an institution and relevance of  education educat ion to practica practicall life/ emp employm loyment ent mark market. et. 6.1


105. 105. The rrefo eform rm o off tea teachi ching ng q qual uality ity iiss of th thee hig highes hestt pr prior iority ity.. Ther Theree is a co conse nsensu nsuss am among ongst st al alll stakeholders that the quality of of teachers in the public sector is unsatisfactory unsatisfactory.. Poor quality of teacher in the system in a large number is owed to mutations in governance, an obsolete pre-service training structure and a less than adequate in-service training regime. Presence of incompetence in such a huge quantity and permeation of malpractices in the profession have eroded the once exalted position enjoyed by teachers under the eastern cultural milieu. Teaching has become the employment of last resort for mos mostt educated youn young g persons persons,, especiall especially y males males.. 106. Reform is re requi quired red in all areas areas:: prepre-servi service ce tra trainin ining g an and d sta standard ndardizat ization ion o off qu qualifi alificatio cations; ns; professional development; teacher remuneration, career progression and status; and governance and management of the teaching workforce. The growth of private sector is adding new complexities to the teaching profession and needs needs to be taken into account in any reform of the system. Policy Actions:

12 13


A Bac Bachel helors ors d degr egree, ee, wi with th a B. B.Ed. Ed.,, sha shall ll be tthe he mi minim nimum um rrequ equirem irement ent ffor or te teach aching ing aatt the elementary level. A Masters level for the secondary and higher secondary, with a B.Ed., shall be ensured by 2018. PTC and CT shall be phased out through encouraging the present set of teachers to improve their qualifications, while new hiring shall be based on the advanced criteria. Exceptions shall be made in case of less developed areas where teachers with relevant qualifications are not available. Diploma in Education (D.Ed) may be used as an intermediate qualificati qualification on till B.Ed teachers are available universally.


Tea Teache cherr trai trainin ning g arra arrange ngeme ments nts,, accr accredi editat tation ion and and cert certifi ificat cation ion pr proce ocedur dures es sha shall ll be standardised and institution institutionalised. alised.

Knowledge and Skills for Life: First Results from PISA 2000, OECD, 2001 Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers, OECD 2005



 National Education Education Policy 2009


Tea Teache cherr edu educat catio ion n cur curric ricul ulum um sh shall all b bee adj adjust usted ed to tthe he ne needs eds o off the sscho chool ol cu curri rricul culum um an and d scheme of studies. The curriculum shall include training for student-centred teaching, cross-curricular competencies, and an on-site component.


A se separ parate ate cad cadre re o off sp speci eciali alised sed tea teache cherr tr train ainers ers sha shall ll b bee de devel velope oped. d.


Gov Governm ernment entss sha shall ll ta take ke st steps eps tto o ens ensure ure tthat hat tteac eacher her rrecr ecruit uitmen ment, t, pr profe ofessi ssiona onall development, promotions and postings are based on merit alone.


All teach teachers ers shall have oppo opportuni rtunities ties for profe profession ssional al devel developm opment ent throu through gh a pr progra ogramme mme organized on a three-year cyclic basis. Progress in career shall be linked to such professional development.


In In-s -ser ervi vice ce tteac eache hers rs ttra rain inin ing g in m mat athe hema mati tics cs sha shall ll b bee prov provid ided ed,, with with d due ue aatt tten enti tion on tto o developing conceptual understanding, procedural knowledge, problem solving and practical reasoning skills.


InIn-ser servic vicee teacher teacher ttrai rainin ning g in sci scienc encee shal shalll be bas based ed on rea reall life ssitu ituati ations ons,, use of sc scien ience ce kits and provision of science kits to all primary and middle schools.


Teache Teacherr al allocat location ion plans plans,, lik likewise, ewise, shall be b based ased on sschool chool needs and qual qualifica ifications tions of  teachers. Over the next of two years, which Governments shall developand a rationalised and needbased school allocation teachers, should be reviewed modified annually.


Prov Provincial incial and Area A Admin dministra istration tionss shall devel develop op effe effectiv ctivee accoun accountabil tability ity m mechanis echanisms, ms, including EMIS data on teacher deployment, to control absenteeism and multiple jobholding,


Inst Instituti itutionali onalised sed and sstanda tandardised rdised iin-se n-service rvice tteache eacherr train training ing reg regime ime sh shall all be est establi ablished shed in those provinces where it has not already been done.


In-se In-service rvice train training ing sshall hall cover a wide range of areas areas:: peda pedagog gogy y and p pedago edagogical gical conte content nt knowledge; subject content knowledge; testing and assessment practices; multi-grade teaching, monitoring and evaluation; and prog programmes rammes to cater to emerging emerging needs like trainings in languages and ICT.


Train Training ing ne needs eds sh shall all be asses assessed sed on the ba basis sis of resear research ch and ttrain raining ing pr program ogrammes. mes.


Gov Governm ernment entss shal shalll tak takee step stepss to im impro prove ve soc social ial st stat atus us and m mora orale le of te teach achers ers.. Thes Thesee include: inclu de: up-s up-scalin caling g of teacher sal salaries aries as part of esta establis blishing hing a separa separate te teachi teaching ng cadre and teaching career; teachers' professional development, and a reward system based on performance measures.


Incen Incentives tives shall be gi given ven to tteache eachers rs in ru rural ral or o other ther hard areas, at lleast east to ccomp ompensat ensatee for loss in salary through reduction of various allowances given for urban but not for rural postings.


The te teachin aching g wor workforc kforcee sha shall ll be m manage anaged d on a truly profes profession sional al bas basis, is, or organiz ganized ed as a specialised function.


 Raising the Quality Quality of Education 35



In-se In-service rvice tteache eacherr train training ing insti institutio tutions ns sha shall ll emp emphasis hasisee devel developin oping g the ccapaci apacity ty of  teachers and school managers for school development plans, to overcome low achievement scores.


Speci Special al sho short rt term course coursess for im improve provement ment o off lang language uage sskills kills for rur rural al area tteacher eacherss shall be designed.


The vo voice iceissues o off teach teachers ers as associa sociation tionss shal shalll be g given iven due co consid nsiderati eration on in deci decisions sions on collective affecting teachers.


Gover Governmen nmentt shal shalll aim to draw upon resou resources rces ffrom rom tthe he pri private vate secto sectorr thr through ough publi publiccprivate partnerships, especially in the areas of teacher education and professional development programmes.


International Development Partners’ resources shall be harnessed within a broad national programme of teacher improvement for the country as a whole through inter-tier collaboration.


Maxim Maximum um aage ge li limit mit sshall hall b bee waiv waived ed of offf for recrui recruitmen tmentt of fe female male teache teachers. rs.


107. Curri Curriculum culum is th thee gui guide de th that at de delinea lineates tes tthe he le learnin arning g pat path h of a stud student. ent. IItt also dete determin rmines es the process of this learning. Normally a curriculum should have the teacher as the centre but textbook  development appears to be the only activity flowing from the curriculum. In the classroom teachers do not use it, being solely focused on the single textbook aassigned ssigned to them. Consequently even assessm assessments ents are based on this textbook and not the curriculum curriculum.. 108. The cu curricu rriculum lum does n not ot ca cater ter to the d divers iversee cond condition itionss in tthe he ed educati ucation on se sector ctor itsel itselff (e.g (e.g.. mul multitigrade classes), as well as the variations within the geographical breadth of the country. Pakistan is blessed with a multitude multitude of cultu cultures res and topograph topographies. ies. These are not adequ adequately ately recognized and assimilated by the education system. In basic primary education the most important missing element is the diffused focus on the local context. However efforts have been made to overcome the deficiencies in curriculum development and its translation into meaningful knowledge 109. A com comprehen prehensive sive revie review w of schoo schooll cu curricu rricula la was init initiated iated in 2 2005. 005. The C Curric urriculum ulum Wing of tthe he Ministry of Education, strengthened by professionals from the field, reviewed the scheme of studies in the first phase. In the second phase, the revised curricula for 25 core subjects (Grades I to XII) were notified in 2007. The review of remaining subjects as listed in the scheme of studies is in progress and will continue till December, 2009. Comparison of current curriculum with curricula of different countries; consultations with teachers, administrators, educationists, curriculum experts and students; field visits to collect feedback from teachers and stakeholders; identification and training of working teams through workshops and seminars; reviews of drafts by subject experts and working teachers leading to further revision and refinement of contents; and preparation of a uniform curriculum format consisting of standards, benchmarks and learning outcomes were vital parts of the curriculum development process. Policy Actions: 1. Curriculum development shall be ob objectives jectives driv driven en and outcom outcomee based. It shall focus on learning outcomes rather than content. It shall closely reflect important social issues; provide



 National Education Education Policy 2009

more room for developing the capacity for self-directed learning, the spirit of inquiry, critical thinking, problem-solving and team-work. 2. The curriculum development and review process, as well as text textbooks books review p process, rocess, shall be standardised and institutionalised within the framework of the Federal Supervision of  Curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. 3. Professional Councils lik likee Pakistan Medical and Dental Cou Council ncil (PM&D (PM&DC) C) and P Pakistan akistan Engineering Council (PEC) shall be involved in consultations for relevant curriculum development. 4. Curriculum shall emphasiz emphasizee the fundam fundamental ental rights g guaranteed uaranteed to the citizens of P Pakistan, akistan, so that each individual shall develop within himself/herself and the society at large a civic culture strong enough to withstand any extra constitutional interference which threatens those rights. 5. Envi Environm ronmental ental educ education ation sha shall ll be made an integral part of educa education. tion. 6. Use of Inform Information ation Communicat Communication ion Technologie Technologiess (ICTs) in Education shall be promoted in line with Ministry of Education’s “National Information and Communication Technology Strategy for Education in Pakistan”.14 7. ICTs shall be utilized ccreatively reatively to aassist ssist teachers an and d students with a wid widee range of ab abilities ilities and from varied socio-econom socio-economic ic backgrounds. 8. ICTs shall be used to strengthen the quality of teaching and educational management. 9. Emerging trends and concepts su such ch as School Health, Preventi Prevention on Education ag against ainst HIV/A HIV/AIDS IDS and other infectious infectious diseases, Life Skills Based Education, Population aand nd Developm Development ent Education, Human Rights Education including gender equality, School Safety and Disaster and Risk Management, Peace Education and inter-faith harmony, detection and prevention of child abuse, etc shall be infused in the curricula and awareness and training materials shall be developed for students and teachers in this context, keeping in view cultural values and sensitivities. 10. School Healt Health h Education and School Safety shal shalll be iinfused nfused within the curricula and learning materials with focus on improving school environment, enriching health education content, instituting regular mechanisms for health screening and health services of students and nutritional support to needy children in coordination with the Departments of Health, Environment and Population at the Federal, Provincial and District levels. 11. Entrepreneurial St Studies udies shall be iintroduced ntroduced to devel develop op entrepreneurial and b business usiness skills in students of general education, to make them productive and self oriented citizens. 12. There shall be an ongoing feedback and evaluation mechanism so that a continuou continuouss improvement process is institutionalised. Feedback should flow from the primary providers of  education to the curriculum development process with the full involvement of all intermediary players. 13. Matri Matric-Tech c-Tech sc scheme heme sha shall ll be re-int re-introduc roduced ed at secondary secondary leve level. l. 14

 National Information and Communication Communication Technology Strategy for Education Education in Pakistan developed by Ministry of Education, GoP in collaboration with USAID assisted Education Sector Reform Assistance (ESRA) cations/NICT_Strategy_For_Education egy_For_Education_in_Pakistan.pdf  _in_Pakistan.pdf  Programme, 2007 http://www.moe.gov.pk/Publi http://www.moe.gov.pk/Publications/NICT_Strat


 Raising the Quality Quality of Education 37



110. 110. Tex Textbo tbooks oks are a key inp input ut ttowa owards rds p prov rovisi ision on o off qu quali ality ty eeduc ducatio ation. n. Th Their eir im impor portan tance ce g gets ets mo more re highlighted where teacher quality is below par. The stakeholders consulted expressed dissatisfaction with the quality of the textbooks available. In addition to problems of bland writing and presentation, problems of weak content on local context at the primary level were identified. Pakistan has been grappling with this situation over the last many years. The lack of quality authors and processes for development of textbooks limits the ability to develop quality books. To overcome the problem, the National Education Policy 1998-2010 1998-2010 recommend recommended ed preparation of multiple textbook textbooks. s. 111. 111. To ope operat ration ionali alise se the p poli olicy cy re recom commen mendat dation ion,, the Minis Ministry try o off Educ Educati ation on,, in con consul sultat tation ion w with ith Provincial/Area Education Departments, constituted a committee to design and recommend a Textbook  Policy for improvement in Textbooks and Learning Materials. A comprehensive dialogue, involving all stakeholders, led to the notification of a ‘National Textbook s and Learning Materials Policy and Plan of  Action’ in June 2007. 112. The objective of the exercise was defined as: “Improvement in the quality of education at all levels through better quality textbooks at affordable prices and other learning materials for promoting Pakistan as a knowledge- based  based society…….Choice society…….Choice and competition are major forces in achieving this objective. Choice on the part of the buyer promotes acquisition of knowledge, empowerment and participation. Competition on the part of the producer leads to a wider variety of products, improved 15

quality, availability and better prices”. Policy Actions: 1. A well regul regulated ated sys system tem of com competit petitive ive publ publishi ishing ng of textb textbooks ooks and le learnin arning g materi materials als shal shalll be introduced. 2. Textb Textbook ook Boar Boards ds shall be transf transforme ormed d into compet competent ent facil facilitati itating, ng, regul regulatin ating g and monito monitoring ring authorities. The Boards shall review and support the process of approval of textbooks for use in schools in their respective areas of jurisdiction. 3. A Provin Provincial cial /Are /Areaa Comm Committee ittee com comprisi prising ng repres representa entatives tives of the educ education ation aut authori horities ties,, Textbook Boards, the private private sector, teachers and other stakeholders sha shall ll be formed to select and prescribe textbooks for use in public schools in the respective province or areas of   jurisdiction. Private sector schools shall be free to choose any of the books authorised by the respective Textbook Board. 4. Feder Federal al and Prov Provincia inciall Govern Government mentss shall arr arrange ange for th thee Textbo Textbook ok Board Boardss to provi provide de assistance in capacity development for the national and/or provincial publishing industry to become competitive players in an expanded education publishing market. 5. Gove Governme rnment nt shall ensu ensure re availa availabili bility ty of quali quality ty paper at reaso reasonable nable cos costt for print printing ing of  textbooks. 6. As part of the rev review iew and ap approva provall proces process, s, Text Textbook book B Boards oards sh shall all seek a no ob objectio jection n certificate from Federal Ministry of Education, Curriculum Wing. 7. Feder Federal al and Provi Provincial ncial / Area Gove Governme rnments nts shall in increase crease inv investm estments ents in schoo schooll librarie librariess and supplementary reading, teacher guides, teachers’ training and learning materials.


 National Textbook & Learning Learning Materials Policy & Pl Plan an of Action, Ministry of Education GoP, 2007.



 National Education Education Policy 2009

8. An “Inter -Provincial Standing Committee on Textbook Policy” shall be established to regulate operational and procedural issues, and monitor and coordinate further implementation processes. Curriculum Wing of Federal Ministry of Education shall be the secretariat for the Committee and shall be strengthened for the expanded tasks. 9. Impl Implemen ementatio tation n of the new system of regu regulated lated co compet mpetitive itive pub publish lishing ing of textb textbooks ooks and learning materials shall start with the introduction of revised National Curricula, and issuance of notification of the National Education Policy 2009. 10. Textbooks at primary lev level el shall be developed withi within n the con context text of lo local cal cultures. 11. Special textbooks sha shall ll be prepared to cater to mult multi-grade i-grade environments. Alternately, supplementary reading material that helps self-learning must be developed for such environments. 12. Curriculum Wing of Ministry of Educati Education on and provincial textb textbook ook boards shall ensure elimination of all types of gender biases from textbooks. Also adequ adequate ate representation of  females shall be ensured in all curriculum and textbooks review committees. 13. An overall policy shal shalll be developed to increase lib library rary usage and improv improvee the quality of  library services in the country 14. In order to promote a reading culture am among ong youth, libraries equipped equipped with modern faciliti facilities, es, including connectivity onlineinlibrary services, shall be established in elementary, secondaryinternet and higher secondaryfor schools a phased manner. 15. To ensure improved llibrary ibrary services the current career and professional development development structure for librarians shall be reviewed to create a structure that manages to attract and retain quality human resource in the profession. 16. Immediately, the optio option n of librarians working in education institut institutions ions to be declared as library teachers and library lecturers respectively shall be explored. 17. The network of public lib libraries raries shall be extended up to to the level of union counc councils. ils. 18. Mobile libra library ry services fo forr rural areas shall be introduced. 19. National Library F Foundation oundation shall be es established tablished to provid providee resources for libraries o on n an ongoing basis. 20. Provision for conti continuing nuing education of lib library rary professionals sha shall ll be made. 6.4


113. 113. Ass Assess essmen mentt sys system temss are qu quali ality ty m meas easures ures tthat hat ccate aterr to a num number ber of re requi quirem rement entss of the education system. These can be used to measure overall system efficiency as well as individual student performance for movement in the education system. A comprehensive assessment design would provide feedback for improvements at all tiers starting from changes in the classroom to improvements in the national systems. 114. Asses Assessmen smentt sy system stem curren currently tly suffer sufferss fro from m sseveral everal defic deficiencie ienciess in prom promoting oting quali quality ty ed educati ucation. on. The one with more sinister outcomes is the practice of rote learning which stops the mental growth of  the child and blocks innovative learning. Efforts have to be made to address this issue and need for inculcating critical and analytical thinking skills for producing life-long independent learners has to be emphasized. Assessment mechanism should be such that analytical thinking and critical reflections are tapped and encouraged.


 Raising the Quality Quality of Education 39

115. The rrecent ecent work of th thee Na Nationa tionall Ed Educat ucation ion A Asses ssessmen smentt Sy System stem and the P Punja unjab b Ex Examin amination ation Commission is pionee pioneering ring in reformin reforming g the system across the country. Policy Actions: 1. Educa Education tion sy system stem ne needs eds to be intern internatio ationally nally co compet mpetitiv itivee and Pakist Pakistan an shall m make ake effort effortss to offer itself for international level academic assessments by 2015, participating in mathematics and science assessment conducted conducted under the umbrella of Trends in Internationa Internationall Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). 2. Stud Student ent perfo performan rmance ce shall be base based d on assess assessing ing com competen petence ce in a special specialised ised area tha thatt require requiress a given skill set. There shall be periodic reviews of the assessment system. 3. Mult Multiple iple asse assessm ssment ent tools in addi addition tion to tradi tradition tional al exami examinatio nations ns shall be explo explored, red, to ensure the right balance between the uses of formative assessment approaches combined with the summative approach of high-stak high-stakes es examinations. 4. Natio National nal sta standard ndardss shall be dev developed eloped tto o reduce th thee differen differences ces in qua quality lity acro across ss regio regions. ns. Assessment processes shall shall be standardised to become uniform across the Boards over over time, so that students appearing in examinations under different Boards are assessed against standardized benchmarks. 5. Exam Examinatio ination n system systemss shall be standar standardise dised d to reduce differ differentia entials ls across stu student dentss appearin appearing g in different boards of examinations, either through gradual reduction of the number of boards or any other mechanism deemed workable by the province/area government. 6. The Exam Examinati ination on board boardss shall be resp responsi onsible ble for capac capacity ity bui buildin lding g of paper sett setters ers and examiners. 7. A com comprehen prehensive sive plan sh shall all be p prepar repared ed to eelimi liminate nate ccheatin heating g and u use se of ot other her un unfair fair m means eans from examinations including addressing social attitudes towards the issue. 8. A qualit quality y cycle ma managem nagement ent shal shalll link the var various ious sy system stemss of assessm assessment ent and ins institu titution tionss involved in assessment (examinations, NEAS/ PEACE, continuous assessment) to provide feedback to curriculum development, textbooks development and teacher education and professional development. 6.5


116. 116. In an aaver verage age rrural ural are areaa of Pak Pakist istan, an, a ffive ive or si six x yea years rs ol old d ch child ild w walk alkss to th thee sch school ool d drea readin ding g what he or she would face. Children are scared of the teacher; for de facto corporal punishment exists in all provinces, although Punjab has managed some interesting counters .They know that they may have to sit on cold floor in winters and a hot one in summers provided they are lucky enough to have a school building otherwise the tree is the only shade available to the children. Toilets are a luxury and where in some schools they exist, the ratio is extremely poor. These issues are link linked ed to poverty, irrespective of the locale. Library facilities are very rudimentary and teaching aid material is generally in short supply. Games, sports and other co-curricular activities such as debating contests, drawing competitions, skills/arts and crafts training, and cultural activities that positively contribute to the overall development of school children are missing from most schools. School infrastructure facilities are highly inadequate, especially in rural areas. In public sector, around 40% of schools are without boundary walls, 36% without drinking water facilities, 61% without electricity, 39% without sanitary facilities and 6% without any buildings.16


 Findings from Pakistan Education Statistics 2007-08, AEPA AEPAMM- Ministry of Education, GoP



 National Education Education Policy 2009

117. One el elemen ementt of the learn learning ing enviro environmen nmentt con consist sistss of teach teacher-st er-student udent relat relationsh ionship. ip. A Althou lthough gh firm data is not availabl available, e, anecdotal evidence sug suggests gests tha thatt corporal p punishment unishment exists iin n all provinces. Policy Actions:



A fra frame mewo work rk ssett ettin ing g ou outt th thee ba basi sicc st stan anda dard rdss fo forr sc scho hool ol ffac acil ilit itie iess an and d te teac achi hing ng aaid id materials including playground shall be established by 2012 and shall form the basis for allocation of funds.


Fede Federa rall go gove vern rnme ment nt ssha hall ll p pro rovi vide de n nec eces essa sary ry rres esou ource rcess to lles esss dev devel elop oped ed aare reas as ffor or provision of missing basic facilities in all education institutions.


A ccon once cept pt of se serv rvic icee tto o tthe he soci societ ety y ssha hall ll be in intr trod oduc uced ed..


St Stud uden entt-tea teach cher er rrat atio ioss sha shall ll be ssta tand ndar ardi dize zed d an and d eenf nfor orce ced d at scho school ol llev evel el


Mu Mult ltii-gr grad adee te teac achi hing ng ssha hall ll b bee el elim imin inat ated ed b by y re recr crui uiti ting ng n need eed base based d te teac ache hers rs aand nd simultaneously providing training to in-service teachers on multi-grade methodologies till removal of teachers’ shortage in the system.


An awa awaren reness ess cam campai paign gn aga agains instt co corpo rporal ral pun punish ishme ment nt sha shall ll be iinit nitiat iated ed aand nd tteac eacher herss sh shall all be held accountable for violations.


A sstud tudy y ffor or ana analyz lyzing ing the im impac pactt o off m mode odern rn m medi ediaa o on n cchil hildre dren nw with ith a v view iew to rreal ealize ize its potential to help in attaining the objectives of the education system shall be undertaken. This must encapsulate the negative impacts and the possible ways to mitigate them. CO-C URRICULAR AND EXTRA-C URRICULAR  ACTIVITIES

118. 118. CoCo-cur curric ricula ularr and eextr xtra-c a-curri urricul cular ar ac activ tiviti ities es tr tradi aditio tional nally ly w were ere a ffocu ocuss of m most ost of th thee sch schoo ools. ls. While co-curricular activities activities are linked to curriculum curriculum,, though these fall outside th thee routine classroom activity; extra-curricular activities go beyond the set curriculum. Over the years, the emphasis on both has been reduced due to various reasons, includ including ing lack of resources and unavailability of teachers. 119. An important component of students’ health and mental development is sports. sports. Most sschool chools, s, especially at the primary level, do not have the ability to provide sports options to children. In case of  high schools, schools, playg playground roundss exist in the relativ relatively ely older esta establis blishmen hments, ts, but spor sports ts equipm equipment ent is lacking lacking.. Poor sports facilities are a major major complaint against private private schools as most of these are housed in sm small all buildings. It has come out as a major area of neglect. Policy Actions: 1.

All sch school oolss sh shall all establ establish ish a sc schoo hooll m miss ission ion tha thatt as assis sists ts sstud tudent entss in ach achiev ieving ing the their ir llear earnin ning g potential and personality development as the key goals. Pursuant to this, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities shall be made a mandatory part of the entire learning process.


St Stan anda dards rds ssha hall ll b bee dev devel elop oped ed fo forr coco-cu curr rric icul ular ar an and d ex extr traa-cu curri rricu cula larr act activ ivit itie ies, s, including scouting,, for all levels of education by all provincial and area governments. scouting


Spor Sports ts ac acti tivi viti ties es sh shal alll b bee o org rgan aniz ized ed aatt th thee Seco Second ndar ary, y, High Higher er S Sec econ onda dary ry,, C Col olle lege ge an and d University levels.


A sy syst stem em ffor or m mon onit itor orin ing g o off sp spor orts ts aand nd ccoo-cu curri rricu cula lar/ r/ extr extraa-cu curr rric icul ular ar aact ctiv ivit itie iess sh shal alll be established by all provincial and area governments.


 Raising the Quality Quality of Education 41


A sspec pecial ial Cel Celll shal shalll b bee eesta stabli blishe shed d iin n tthe he Min Minist istry ry of Edu Educat cation ion for this this p purp urpose ose.. H High igher er Education Commission Commission wi will ll look after all such activities at the Universi Universities ties’ level.


All All sc scho hool ols, s, co coll lleg eges es an and d eq equi uiva valen lentt in inst stit itut utio ions ns aand nd aabo bove ve sh shal alll cre creat atee sp spor orts ts ffac acil ilit itie iess or get affiliated with sports grounds.


In o orde rderr to str stream eamlin linee sp sport ort act activi ivitie tiess in all edu educat cation ional al iinst nstitu itutio tions, ns, a St Steer eering ing Co Comm mmitt ittee ee comprising representatives from Education and Sports Ministries/ Departments at Federal and Provincial levels, as well as representatives from Pakistan Olympics Association and Pakistan Sports Board, shall be constituted.


To pro provid videe ince incenti ntive ve and to enc encou ourag ragee d deve evelop lopme ment nt of Sport Sportss at at grass grassroo roots ts lev level, el, quo quota ta (as determined by respective provincial/area governments) for admission to educational institutions on sports basis shall be enforced and a transparent mechanism shall be devised for this purpose.


Spo Sports rts Fu Fund nd col collec lected ted fro from m sstu tuden dents ts sha shall ll on only ly be use used d fo forr the the pur purpos poses es of pro promo motio tion n aand nd development of Sports.

10. 10.

Ever Every y S Sch choo ooll tto o p part artic icip ipat atee iin n m min inim imum um of four four sp spor orts ts.. E Eac ach h C Col olle lege ge sh shal alll h hav avee its its ow own n four to six te teams ams in includ cluding ing At Athleti hletics. cs.


All sscho chool olss to o orga rganiz nizee Spo Sports rts/P /PT T per period iodss in lline ine wit with h ap appro proved ved sch schem emee of st studi udies es 2 2006 006..


Reg Regula ularr summe summerr cam camps ps in v vari arious ous spo sports rts d disc iscipl iplin ines es sh shall all be ar arran ranged ged b by y edu educat cation ional al institutions, during the summer vacations.

13. 13.

An Annu nual al inte interr-sc scho hool ols, s, in inte terr-co coll lleg eges es an and d inte interr-un univ ivers ersit itie iess sp spor orts ts co comp mpet etit itio ions ns sh shal alll be hel held d regularly in all Provinces/Areas.


Per Perfor forma mance nce aand nd iinte nteres restt in sspor ports ts an and d ot other her ccoo-cur curric ricula ularr act activi ivitie tiess to b bee ref reflec lected ted iin n annual confidential reports (ACRs) of Heads of Educational Institutions.


Inc Incent entive ivess wou would ld b bee of offer fered ed tto o He Heads ads of IInst nstitu itutio tions, ns, perf perform orming ing wel welll in spo sports rts and oth other er co-curricular activities at all levels.


A cod codee of ccon onduc ductt sh shall all be eesta stabli blishe shed d wh which ich sha shall ll eenab nable le sstud tudent entss un union ions, s, aass an and d wh when en restored, to participate in healthy activities without affecting the environment of the educationa educat ionall inst instituti itutions. ons.



Policy Actions: 1.

Co Cours urses es at the sseco econda ndary ry aand nd hi high gher er sec second ondary ary lleve evell sha shall ll be rrevi eviewe ewed d wi with th a v view iew tto o making mak ing them m more ore relev relevant ant to th thee needs of th thee empl employm oyment ent mark market et in orde orderr to bette betterr prepare prepa re those studen students ts not plann planning ing furth further er studies studies..


A sstudy tudy shal shalll b bee co conduc nducted ted to evalu evaluate ate the imp impact act o off te technic chnical al m matricu atriculatio lation n aand nd expl explore ore ways of introducing an improved system of technical and vocational education at high school level. The stream shall offer two-way link with the academic stream and also provide links to a revamped vocational and technical sector at higher levels.


App Approac roaches hes sshal halll be fo found und to pr provi ovide de st stude udents nts wit with h a wi windo ndow w to tthe he wo world rld o off wor work. k. Th This is could involve short assignments the with localthe entwork erprises and institutions or “job shadowing’ approaches to familiarisewith students environment.



 National Education Education Policy 2009


Car Career eer g guid uidanc ancee and ccoun ounsel sellin ling g sha shall ll be iintr ntrodu oduced ced aatt sec second ondary ary aand nd up upper per sseco econda ndary ry levels, if not in each school, at least for school school clusters. This shall involv involvee local employers in providing information about job openings and the nature of work requirements.

-* - * - *-


Strengthening Skill Development and Innovation 43


Strengthening Skill Development and Innovation 120.

Pakis Pakistan tan has a lar large ge p popul opulation ation and there therefore fore a co compar mparative ative advan advantage tage in llabou abourr cos costs. ts.

However skill The levelsdeficit dampen the potential of the industry, labour force to significantly to economic low growth. permeates all sectors: agriculture, services,contribute commerce. Improvements in the skill skill levels of the human capital wil willl increase efficiency and com competitiveness petitiveness of  the local industry, attract international investment and allow overseas employment of Pakistanis generating a flow of foreign f oreign remittances. 121. The fo formal rmal Techn Technical ical aand nd Vo Vocatio cational nal E Educat ducation ion ((TVE) TVE) ssyste ystem m is not a majo majorr sup supplier plier of sk skills ills to the country’s labour market. As a structure it suffers from rigidities that fail to cater to the dynamism required by the market. Secondly the st structure ructure does not facto factorr in local requirem requirements ents that vary across geographic units i.e. provinces, districts, tehsils. It is critical that skill development and market requirements match. 7.1


122. Like all o other ther secto sectors rs of educa education tion in P Pakist akistan, an, T TVE VE al also so su suffers ffers from issue issuess of access as wel welll as quality. While theoretically it cate caters rs to the market needs, practically it meets a very small portion of  of  the demand. In most countries, the relat relative ive share of the applied segment segment of the tertiary sector is higher higher than the 18.5% in Pakistan. Hence, the base of technical and vocational skills provided to the economy in Pakistan is narrow. The inadequate quality stems from both a smaller number of total years of  preparation and limitations of the curriculum, compared to the more advanced systems as well as the issue of availability of quality instructors. 123. The p parts arts of p pre-in re-indepen dependence dence Indi Indiaa whi which ch b became ecame part o off Pak Pakistan istan had a ver very y lo low w ind indust ustrial rial base, inheriting only 4% 4% of the total industrial sect sector. or. Pakistan progressed rapid rapidly ly in the 50s from this low base that continued to early 60s. To meet the requirements of a growing manufacturing sector, technical and vocational training sy systems stems were expanded and st strengthened. rengthened. However, after the initia initiall success subsequent investment in the sector failed to keep pace with the changes in the market requirements. 124. On tthe he d deman emand d sside, ide, jobs in the publ public ic sector cont continued inued to b bee a prior priority. ity. Most of tthese hese jobs did not require specialized skills and even a general matriculation certificate with no technical or vocational content was deemed satisfactory to fill the junior level administrative and service jobs. The academic degrees of Bachelors of Arts and Masters of Arts were sufficient to fill the requirements r equirements for higher level  jobs. This tradition has largely been maintained since Independence, even though the economic structure of the country has changed significantly. The demand-pull effects have had limited effect on educational provision. 125. On th thee supp supply ly si side, de, tthe he cer certific tificate ate an and d di diplom plomaa prog programm rammes es do not sseem eem to ha have ve a p progres rogression sion ladder into higher level skills. They do not provide entry claims into the tertiary sector with credit recognition in both the academic and applied streams. In addition to this blocked forward linkage, the backward linkage with apprentice training in the traditional sector is missing. There is no provision whereby the traditional apprenticeship experience in the non-formal sector could be assessed and certified for entry into the formal sector of vocational education. The current TVE certificate stream is too narrow in its scope and does not cover the large variety of skills training that takes place in the



 National Education Education Policy 2009

traditional sector. Two way cross-over between the academic and the applied / professional streams is lacking in the system. The absence of a well-articulated qualifications system is a major structural shortcoming. 126. The p probl roblem em o off a ffragm ragmented ented struc structure ture of g govern overnance, ance, endem endemic ic to the educa education tion secto sector, r, al also so plagues plagu es the technica technicall and vocat vocational ional subsub-secto sector. r. Many instit institutio utions ns and jurisd jurisdictio ictions ns are involv involved ed in governance of this field without a clear demarcation of their respective responsibilities. There is no focal point for coherent planning for the sector. 127. At th thee sam samee tim time, e, the voic voices es o off im importan portantt st stakeho akeholders lders,, suc such h as the b busin usiness ess secto sector, r, are not adequately considered while shaping the content, structure structuress and certification of study programmes. programmes. The TVE sector does not benefit from good collaboration and input from the business sector, such as for updating its equipments and teaching materials. Resultantly, there are perennial complaints from employers about the substandard quality of the skills available in the market. 128. The P Policy olicy recog recognises nises the h high igh iimpo mportance rtance of dev developi eloping ng a broad broad-bas -based ed an and d hig high h qu quality ality secto sectorr for providing technical sk skills. ills. As the manufacturing and services sectors hav havee expanded, sk skill ill requirements of the country have diversified as well, and there are needs for ttechnical echnical and vocational skills even in the traditional sector as it adopts more productive techniques of production. The technical intensity of production processes will increase as new technologies become more pervasive, thereby raising the demand for TVE skills of a higher quality. 129. In a glob global al en enviro vironmen nmentt th that at pe permit rmitss eas easy y fl flow ow o off in investm vestments ents and p peopl eople, e, th thee TVE sect sector or in Pakistan needs to have a forward looking supply strategy of producing a sophisticated skill base. Pakistan has a comparative advantage in the labour market due to its population size. Unfortunately it has so far failed to optimally benefit from this endowment. In comparison, India has developed a wider and more qualified skill base to the point that it can export high value added services. The forecasted demographic transition over the next few years shows the young population of 15-24 years to grow and peak in 2015. The current global talent deficit is expected to expand rapidly and Pakistan needs to be well poised to benefit from this expanding demand. demand. This is an opportunity for the TVE to subs substantively tantively contribute to the country’s growth potential. 130. While Techni Technical cal Educa Education tion and V Vocati ocational onal Train Training ing need disti distinct nct treatm treatment, ent, this chapt chapter er de deals als with the sector as a whole. As far as Vocational Training is concerned various experiments in the country have not succeeded and most reform proposals invite controversy. A major deficit has been absence of focused research into the causes of this failure and potential rem remedies. edies. consultations for the policy some of the issues that appeared were: 

During the

Schools did not have enough budget to meet the equipment requirements for sustaining vocational trainings. Adequately skilled teachers teachers for these programm programmes es were not available. The curricula assume prototypes that did not cater to differentials in market requirements across districts or other geographic divides like rural-urban, etc.

131. The P Polic olicy y ad addresse dressess th three ree princ principal ipal prob problems lems faced by tthe he se sector: ctor: (i) iits ts we weak ak llinkag inkages es wi with th other education sectors and the labour market, (ii) deficiencies in the governance of the sector; and (iii) the need to expand e xpand supply of technical skills of good quality.


Strengthening Skill Development and Innovation 45

Policy Actions: 1.

Inpu Inputs ts of all stak stakehold eholders ers like Indu Industria strial/Ag l/Agricul ricultural tural/Serv /Service ice secto sectors rs etc. shal shalll b bee institutionalized institutionaliz ed to ensure their inclusion in all current and future reforms of TVE to enable the sector to meet market needs.


Skill Skillss S Stan tandard dardss an and d Cu Curri rricul culum um sho should uld be d deve evelop loped ed aand nd standa standardi rdized zed at tthe he nat nation ional al level.


The T TVE VE cu curri rricul culum um sshal halll be d deve evelop loped ed in stand standardi ardized zed m modu odules les ffor or ea each ch tr trade ade tto o eliminate differentials across various training institutions to provide opportunities to the trainees for horizontal/vertical horizontal/vertical mobility and also help in as assessment sessment and certi certification fication of  apprentices in non-formal sectors for their entry into formal f ormal vocational/techni vocational/technical cal sectors.


TVE sh shall all be eexte xtende nded d acc accord ording ing tto o the n need eed o off the ar area ea i.e i.e.. Tehs Tehsil, il, D Dist istric rictt and D Div ivisi ision. on.


Skill Skills-b s-based ased v voca ocatio tional nal ttrai rainin ning g cou course rses, s, rel releva evant nt to th thee loca locall labo labour ur m mark arket, et, sh shall all be offered to the graduates of literacy programmes by the National Education Foundation, provincial/ area literacy department/ directorate and relevant NGOs.


Lev Levelel-wis wisee prer prerequ equisi isites tes ffor or en entry try aass a tea teacher cher iin n TV TVE E sh shall all b bee def define ined d and T Teach eacher er professional development shall be focused as an ongoing process.


Ter Terms ms an and d cond conditi itions ons o off ser servi vice ce for T TVE VE te teach achers ers sshal halll be com compat patibl iblee wit with h mar market ket d dem emand and of their services and skills.


Loc Local al con condi ditio tions ns an and d requ require ireme ments nts m must ust be co consi nsider dered ed wh while ile m maki aking ng an any y reco recomm mmend endati ation on for replication of TVE models, implemented in other countries.


A st study udy to evalu evaluate ate fail failures ures of v vocati ocational onal train training ing inter intervent ventions ions at schoo schooll llevel evel shal shalll be commissioned to make more realistic recommendations, including cost requirements, for making it part of general education up to Secondary School Level.


Tec Techni hnical cal and vo vocati cationa onall ed educa ucatio tion n in insti stitut tution ionss sh shall all par partic ticula ularly rly foc focus us o on n ag agroro-bas based ed vocational skills to deal with both agriculture and livestock.


Curri Curricula cula for v vocati ocational onal educa education tion shall allo allow w fle flexibi xibility lity for ad adaptat aptation ion in ac accord cordance ance w with ith the requirements of local market, market, including absorp absorption tion of future changes in th thee market.


Techni Technical cal eeducat ducation ion insti institutio tutions ns b before efore offer offering ing ((if if plan planning ning to of offer) fer) d degree egree prog programm rammes, es, shall also seek clearance from Pakistan Engineering Council before launching such programmes.


Gover Governmen nments ts sha shall ll tak takee pract practical ical m measure easuress to re remove move socia sociall tabo taboos os at attached tached to TV TVE E and promote dignity of work in line with teachings of Islam.




Nation National al V Vocat ocational ional and Techni Technical cal Educa Education tion Com Commiss mission ion (NAV (NAVTEC) TEC) has alrea already dy prepar prepared ed a

set of strategies for this sector. These provide a basis for development development of implem implementation entation plans for the technical and vocational sector. sector. The above policy actions in conjunction wit with h these strategies wil willl assist in development of implementation plans. Most strategic options given by NAVTEC appear as a



 National Education Education Policy 2009

natural progression from the above policy actions. Some of the strategic o options ptions that have a clear link  to the above policy actions are given below (the list is inclusive and other strategic options in NAVTEC document are also relevant to the implementation proc process ess of NEP): 1.

A Nat Nation ional al Qua Qualif lifica icatio tions ns Fr Fram amewo ework rk (N (NQF) QF) sshal halll be est establ ablish ished ed in co cons nsult ultati ation on wi with th professional bodies (like PEC, PM&DC, ICAP etc.) along with a changed programme structure that encompasses all qualifications in the country, both academic and vocational/technical. The NQF shall be competency based and provide entry points and progression routes throughout the structure of qualifications. In particular, it shall provide the possibilities of two-way cross-over between the academic and the applied streams, with clearly mapped out recognition of credit points for each competency level.


The b busi usines nesss sec sector tor,, in p part articu icular lar,, sha shall ll be iincl nclude uded d in adv advisi ising ng on tthe he co cours ursee and programme content, and in providing training positions and job shadowing opportunities for students in the applied streams. The business sector could also help teachers by giving specialised lectures and short training tr aining programmes.


All adm administ inistrativ rativee jjurisd urisdictio ictions ns and stak stakehold eholders ers shall be iinvol nvolved ved in a cons consultat ultative ive process to develop the NQF programme. Expertise shall be sought from countries that have applied the NQF approach in recent years.


To add addres resss the pro probl blem em of fra fragm gment ented ed gov govern ernanc ancee stru structu ctures, res, a coo coordi rdinat nation ion m mech echani anism sm between higher education, school education and technical, vocational education shall be developed.


Gov Govern ernme ment nt sha shall ll dev develo elop p a suita suitable ble fr fram amewo ework rk for te techn chnica icall and sci scient entifi ificc educ educati ation on an and d training with close involvement of Chambers of Commerce and Industry.


Tea Teache cherr tra traini ining ng iin n th thee ind indust ustrie riess dur during ing vac vacati ation on pe perio riod d ev every ery yea yearr for im impro provem vement ent o of  f  technical know-how on technological changes shall be initiated.


Co Comm mmerce erce sstre tream am sh shall all al also so be in intro troduc duced ed un under der ttech echnic nical al edu educat cation ion an and d voc vocati ationa onall training regimes.


A Un Univ iversi ersity ty o off Te Techn chnolo ology gy shall shall b bee es estab tablis lished hed at tthe he n nati ationa onall le level vel


Publi Publicc Pri Privat vatee Pa Partn rtners ershi hips ps (P (PPP PP)) sha shall ll b bee st stren rength gthene ened d in tthis his are area. a.


A regul regular ar track tracking ing sy system stem sshall hall be iinsti nstituted tuted ffor or grad graduates uates to get fe feedback edback on relev relevancy ancy..


B.Tec B.Tech h tech technolog nologists ists sshould hould also b bee regi registere stered d by th thee Pak Pakistan istan E Engin ngineering eering Coun Council cil


Vocat Vocational ional ttrainin raining g faci faciliti lities, es, Poly Polytechn technic ic Ins Institu titute te and C Colleg olleges es of Tech Technolog nology y shall b bee established on need basis. -* - * - *-


 Higher Education 47


 Higher Education Education 133. Good quali quality, ty, m meriterit-orien oriented, ted, eequita quitable ble aand nd eff efficien icientt hig higher her edu educatio cation n is the m most ost cru crucial cial instrument for translating the dream of a knowledge-based economy economy into reality. The tertiary sector sector contributes as well in the attainment of social goals of developing civic responsibility, social cohesion and a more more toler tolerant ant so society ciety.. An imp important ortant funct function ion of h highe igherr educa education tion iiss resea research rch thro through ugh w which hich it contributes to the innovation process, economic growth, sustainable development and social cohesion. 134. The H Highe igherr Edu Educatio cation n Co Commi mmission ssion (HEC (HEC)) was creat created ed to serve as th thee apex body for al alll m matters atters pertaining to policy, plans, programs, standards, funding and oversight of higher education in the country and transform the higher education sector to serve as an engine of growth for the socioeconomic development in the country. The HEC is responsible to formulate policies, guiding principles and priorities priorities for higher eeducation ducation institutions for prom promotion otion of socio-econom socio-economic ic developm development ent of the country, funding of higher education institutions, accreditation and quality assurance of academic programs and preparation of plans for the development of higher education and express its opinion on all matters relating thereto. 8. 1


135. Enhan Enhancing cing equit equitable able access to hi higher gher educa education tion remai remains ns a form formidable idable chall challenge enge for tthe he h higher igher education sector sector in P Pakistan. akistan. Alth Although ough sig significant nificant achiev achievements ements have been recorded with an enhancement in access to higher education rising from 2.2% of the 18 to 23 year age cohort in 2002 to over 4.7% in 2008, participation rates remain low compared to India (7%) and Malaysia (12%). 136. Low aalloca llocation tion of p per er cap capita ita expen expenditu diture re to stud students ents in th thee hi higher gher educa education tion secto sectorr con continu tinues es as a challenge facing the sector, especially since taking into consideration the ever increasing demands for resources to support the rapidly evolving scientific fields. To address the requirements of the country it is necessary to focus on enhanced provision of scientific education relevant to the needs of the agricultural and industrial sectors. Provision of adequate resources to provide infrastructure including libraries, laboratories, scientific equipment, teaching aids, and high speed internet connection remains a challenge. 137. Prov Provision ision of qu qualit ality y ed educatio ucation n req requires uires a m mechani echanism sm for iintern nternal al an and d ex externa ternall ev evaluat aluation ion of  quality parameters. In this regards it is necessary to ensure that program and university accreditation mechanisms are instituted that are compatible with international best practices and provide complete transparency of operation leading to enhanced provision of quality education. 138. The sscale, cale, qual quality ity and iinsti nstitutio tutional nal aarrang rrangemen ements ts of the high higher er edu educatio cation n se sector ctor must be ab able le tto o support and encourage innovation in the economy and domestic and international funding support. The challenge is to enhance the R&D capacity to achieve knowledge transmission to the productive sector through university-industry partnerships. 139. On tthe he g govern overnance ance side, the academ academic ic an and d adm adminis inistrati trative ve m managem anagement ent o off Co Colleg lleges es rem remains ains an unresolved issue since the degrees are awarded by the universities while the administrative control of  colleges themselves lies with the provincial governments.



 National Education Education Policy 2009

8. 2


140. While prepa preparing ring a res respons ponsee to the chall challenges enges faced in ttransfo ransformin rming g th thee hig higher her eeducat ducation ion ssector ector in Pakistan to respond to domestic and global socio-economic challenges it needs to be recognized that: 1. Faculty is the heart and soul of the university, and without an active and well qualified faculty it will not be possible to have meaningful developm development ent in this sector. 2. Faculty development  cannot   cannot be viewed in isolation and must be considered together with the development of an environment conducive to academics, as well as research and development in the universities. Faculty development programmes must also address factors pertaining to retention of qualified faculty in the public sector higher education institutions. 3.  Institutions of higher learning  are knowledge repositories whose faculty faculty and st student udentss acqui acquire re knowledge and apply it to understand and address "local" issues. 4. An integ integral ral role of hig higher her educa education tion ins institut titutions ions is in assi assistin sting g policy m makin aking g and serving as "t hink hink tanks” to the public and private sectors. 5. In line wi with th the wor worldwid ldwidee paradi paradigm gm sh shift ift from "Te "Teachin aching" g" to "Lear "Learning ning", ", progra programs ms of stud study y will focus on ensuring maximal absorption of subject matter by the students. 6. Facul Faculty ty train training ing in peda pedagogi gogical, cal, com communi municatio cation n and ICT sk skills ills is requ required ired at all le levels vels to enhance the efficiency of teaching in higher education. 7. The hig higher her educa education tion sy system stem an and d instit institutio utions ns must ac accord cord hig high h priorit priority y to ensur ensuring ing th thee quality of services  and quality of outcomes. Internal quality assurance processes of higher education institutions must be strengthened to conform to international standards of quality assurance. 8. While bu buildi ilding ng the high higher er educat education ion sect sector or prio priority rity sho should uld be give given n to recogniz recognizing ing exce excellenc llencee and supporting it. 9. To en ensure sure that reform initi initiatives atives are al aligned igned with d develo evelopmen pmentt obj objectiv ectives, es, the engagement   of  key stakeholders of the higher education sector in the decision making processes is of utmost importanc imp ortance, e, part particular icularly ly in ensur ensuring ing the relevance of educational educational and resea research rch prog programm rammes es to economic imperatives. 10. Changing innov innovation ation processes and the evolu evolution tion of the relative cont contribution ribution made by the private and public sectors have emphasized the need for strong industry-university linkages, allowing both sectors to interact and collaborate on joint projects. 11. Engineers build nations and eng engineering ineering education must receive prio priority, rity, especially in engineering disciplines of  immediate economic relevance to major industry sectors such as a) Information and Computerization Technology, Technology, b) Energy Sector, c) Mining, d) Construction, e) Textiles, f) Manufacturing, g) Nanotechnology and Engineering Design. 12. In the modern g global lobal knowledgeknowledge-economy, economy, employers increas increasingly ingly look up to universities and colleges to deliver the well-educated workforce they require in the form of  articulate, flexible, and readily employable graduates to remain r emain competitive. 13. Graduates of the higher education system m must ust have the abi ability lity to communicate effectively both in reading and in writing.


 Higher Education 49

14. In the rap rapidly idly ch changin anging g glob global al econo economy, my, the empl employm oyment ent mark market et const constantly antly re require quiress new and different skills, requiring mechanisms to be enhanced to allow professionals to upgrade their skills at regular intervals and develop new competencies through lifelong learning. Higher education institutions are required, therefore, to offer learning opportunities in response to diverse demands and work cooperatively with stakeholders to ensure that appropriate courses are readily available. 15.  Brain Drain is a daunting daunting pro problem blem fo forr Paki Pakistan. stan. Wh Whilst ilst iitt is essen essential tial to encou encourage rage mob mobility ility as a source of intellectual enrichment, measures are to be introduced to encourage Pakistanis to return to their their country of origin and to participate in its econ economic, omic, social and cultural development. 16. The Hi Higher gher E Educa ducation tion ssector ector is a m major ajor contr contribut ibutor or to innovation. Universities and colleges through local, regional, national and international partnerships must share their expertise and facilities to support socioeconomic regeneration and growth. 17. Knowledge creation and diffusion are increasing increasingly ly important driv drivers ers of innovatio innovation, n, sustainable economic growth and social well-being.  Research is to be be reaffi reaffirmed rmed as a fund fundamen amental tal act activity ivity of institutions. The establishm establishment ent and long term sustainabi sustainability lity of a dynamic research sector in in univer uni versi sitie ties, s, tthat hat eng engage agess st stake akeho holde lders rs in in iits ts aacti ctivi vitie ties, s, iiss cen centra trall to ach achiev ieving ing eco econom nomic ic competitiveness. 18. It is w widely idely recog recognized nized that transferring knowledge effectively is often as important as original scholarship. Incentives are to be provided to ensure that scientists who innovate and develop novel applications, addressing local needs, receive recognition and support. 19. It is imp imperative erative that award of Ph.D. deg degrees rees should ssignify ignify original contribution to the world body of knowledge knowledge as certified by inter internatio national nal experts. experts. 20. The deli delivery very of q qualit uality y educat education ion and res research earch is th thee core respo responsib nsibility ility o off each insti institutio tution n of  higher learning. 21. Universities and institutions of higher learning and research play a catalytic  role in the economic development   of the region in which they are located. Development projects should therefore be initiated with a vision of sustainable economic development in the region in which the Institution is located. 22. It is essent essential ial to prov provide ide equitable  and en enha hanc nced ed acce access ss to hig highe herr ed educ ucat atio ion n  for underrepresented groups. The strategy here will be two-faceted: firstly to promote cultural change in instilling the value of higher education amongst citizens; and secondly to tackle the primary barrier of prohibitive costs of higher education. Distance education and open learning can play a major role in widening access. 23. Extensive access to higher education wi will ll first require opt optimal imal usage of exi existing sting physical infrastructure. It will be necessary however to invest in equipment, laboratory facilities and space to cater to the demand of enhanced enrolment. 24. Mode Modern rn info informati rmation on and comm communicat unications ions techn technolog ologies ies (ICT (ICT)) ar aree essen essential tial to enhan enhancing cing efficiency, efficacy and impact of programmes of development in the higher education sector. 25. Allied with the increased d demands emands on higher educatio education n by its customers and st stakeholders, akeholders, the sector faces growing expectations from government and society as a whole. With increased



 National Education Education Policy 2009

appropriation of public funds towards Higher Education come growing demands for transparency and that those financial allocations are well-targeted. 26. Movements in the glo global bal knowledge-society will require universities tto o develop into diverse, flexible, self-analytical and adaptable enterprises. Only a sector that is actively engaged in meeting the needs of its stakeholders will be adequately prepared to respond to the accelerated pace of change the global markets will inevitably undergo in the 21st Century. 141. The rrealiz ealization ation of tthe he sstrateg trategic ic v vision ision and iimpl mplemen ementatio tation n of propo proposed sed p policy olicy action actionss wi will ll require the availability of adequate financial resources. It is imperative to enhance the funds available to the education sector to 7% of GDP by 2015 as well as to enhance the proportion of this budget available to the higher higher education ssector ector to 20 20% % of the education budg budget. et. The Poli Policy cy endorses the main plans of  the Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) of the Higher Education Commission, while suggesting additional action that are consistent with the Framework. Policy Actions: 1. Steps sh shall all be take taken n to raise enro enrolmen lmentt in higher ed educati ucation on secto sectorr from exis existing ting 4.7 4.7% % to 10% by 2015 201 5 and 15% by 202 2020. 0. 2. Inve Investme stment nt in higher edu education cation sh shall all be incre increased ased to 20% of the edu educatio cation n budget al along ong with aan n enhancement of the total education budget to 7% of GDP. 3. A two-fo two-fold ld strat strategy egy for R&D pr promot omotion ion at univ universit ersities ies shal shalll be pursued pursued.. In the first case, bas basic ic research in the universities and research institutions shall focus on building the capacity to conduct and absorb cutting edge research. The second strand shall be a focus on knowledge mobilization - that is, transmission of research knowledge through through various forms of universityindustry partnerships and incubator programmes and science parks to the business sector. This commercialization strategy aims at assisting the innovation process of the economy. 4. Competitive research grants for funding must be available to ensure that the best ideas in areas of importance are recognized, and allowed to develop. 5. Op Oppo port rtu uniti nities es fo forr collaboration  with the world scholarly community should be provided for both post-graduate students and faculty. 6. Tenure Track  system  system of appointment of faculty members will be institution institutionalized. alized. 7. ICT mu must st be effect effectively ively lleverag everaged ed to deliv deliver er high qua quality lity te teachin aching g and resea research rch supp support ort in higher education, both on-campus and using distance education, providing access to technical and scholarly information resources, and facilitating scholarly communication between researchers and teachers. 8. Addit Additiona ionall televis television ion chann channels els shou should ld be dedicate dedicated d to the delivery of hig high-qu h-quality ality dis distance tance education programmes. 9. Facul Faculty ty develo developmen pmentt doctoral and po post-d st-doctor octoral al schol scholarshi arships ps shall be award awarded ed to merito meritoriou riouss students for pursuing their studies both in Pakistan and abroad. 10. rather For prom promoting oting quality ity in its teaching to function, univ universities ersities sh shall all in particular areas, than eachqual university attempting cover the whole range of specialise programmes.


 Higher Education 51

11. A continuous prof professional essional developm development ent (CPD) programm programmee shall be designed for Co College llege and university teachers. The CPD, among other things, shall include the practice of subject-wise refresher courses for college teachers; Provinces/Area education departments shall ensure training of college teachers in pedagogical skills and educational administratio administration. n. 12. Universities sha shall ll develop qu quality ality assurance programmes, which include peer evaluatio evaluation n including foreign expertise. 13. Ranking system of the universities sh shall all be made more broad-based, including including parameters th that at directly reflect the q quality uality of learning. 14. Need-based scho scholarship larship pro programs grams shall be developed an and d instituted to enhance equitable access to higher education. 15. Campuses of exis existing ting universities sh shall all be established iin n second and third tier cit cities ies to facilitate the spread of higher education. 16. Recog Recognizin nizing g the import importance ance of socia sociall science sciencess in devel developing oping be better tter soci social al unders understandi tanding, ng, transmission of civic and cultural values and the potential to reduce conflict, universities shall pay greater attention to this area in their research function. 17. A broad-based   education system must be developed to ensure that graduates have not only mastered their respective areas of specialization but are also able to effectively interact with people having a wide variety of backgrounds. bac kgrounds. 18. Universities sh shall all introduce in integrated tegrated four-y four-year ear Bachelor degree prog programmes. rammes. 19. Existing stand standardization ardization of libraries an and d library profession professionals als shall be reviewed k keeping eeping in view latest developments in the field of medical, engineering, information technology and other fields of professional and higher education to support academic work and research. 20. The lecturers selected thro through ugh the Public Serv Service ice Commissions Commissions shall be required to get at least six months pre-service training/ diploma in teaching methodologies, communication skills, research and assessment techniques, so as to equip them with necessary teaching skills to undertake the job. 21. Universities shal shalll develop standards fo forr colleges affiliated wi with th them and these m must ust then be categorized accordingly. Colleges falling below a certain level must be warned and eventually disaffiliated. 22. Accreditation councils w will ill be established to allow accreditation of un undergraduate dergraduate programs in the respective disciplines for which these councils are established. 23. Scien Science-ba ce-based sed educat education ion at the bachelo bachelorr’s level, including professional degree programmes, shall contain subjects in social sciences to allow the graduates to develop a more balanced world view. 24. Research linked to local iindustry, ndustry, comm commerce, erce, agriculture etc. shall be encouraged to support these areas through indigenous solutions and create linkages between academia and the market. 25. In order to ensure adherence to minimum standards of quality by all universities/ deg degree ree awarding institutions, the HEC shall develop a process for periodic reassessment of various



 National Education Education Policy 2009

programmes offered by institutions institutions with regard to renewal of their degree awarding status. This provision shall be applicable to both public and private sector universities. 26. Universities sha shall ll be encouraged to dev develop elop split-degree split-degree programmes in coll collaboration aboration with foreign universities of good repute. 27. Universities of technology should be established to produce technologists required by industry. 28.  National Centres in areas of economic importance should be identified and strengthened to contribute and compete at an international level. 29. Institutions of higher learning sh should ould be encouraged and supported to g generate enerate intellectual  property that is duly protected. 30. It is necessary to focus o on n implementatio implementation n excellence, which will requ require ire adoption of mo modern dern project management and reporting techniques as well as computerized financial management systems.

-* - * - *-


 Implementation Framework  Framework  53


 Implementation  Implemen tation Fram Framework ework17  142.

Devel Developme opment nt of detai detailed led iimpl mplement ementation ation plans plans,, pri prioriti orities es an and d str strategie ategiess is the k key ey tto o suc success cess of 

the National Education Policy. Policy. This is exclusively the task of the provincial and distr district ict governments. However, to facilitate the process and develop a clear path and mechanism, an overall framework for implementation is being recommended here. The final detailed implementation plans will flow from these conceptual bases. 143. In sum summary mary,, after the N NEP EP iiss agr agreed eed to by aall ll fe federat derating ing units units,, it will becom becomee a jo jointly intly owned national document. Each province province and area will develop implementation strategies strategies and plans according to its own priorities priorities (including current ongoing activities). At the Federal level, the Minis Ministry try of  Education will collate the plans of the federating units to develop a national picture of educational progress in Pakistan for reporting to international fora and more importantly, presenting it to the Inter Provincial Education Ministers’ Conference- the highest body to oversee development of education in Pakistan. 9.1


144. The N Nation ational al E Educat ducation ion Poli Policy cy ((NEP) NEP) 2008 analy analyses ses probl problems ems and issues ham hampering pering the development of education in Pakistan, and outlines a wide range of reforms and policy actions to be taken and pursued in a coordinated federal –  inter-provin  inter-provincial cial axis. Th Thee NEP  NEP thus  thus outlines what outlines what is  is to be done. The NEP does not deal with   who who   will do what,   how how   will something be done, and  and   when  when  is something done? Past national education policy documents, with some exceptions, largely remained declarations of intent and were not followed up by an effective implementation. Even where implementation did take place, there was no complete c omplete process for monitoring and feedback. 145. To pr prevent event failu failure re of this poli policy cy an imp implemen lementatio tation n fr framew amework, ork, with a fol follow low up aand nd fe feedback  edback  mechanism, shall be developed. The basic principles were agreed in the 13th Meeting of Inter-Provincial Education Ministers (IPEM) held on 9th May, 2008 in Islamabad. The meeting decided and directed that “An Action Plan will be developed by each Province/Area and collated at the Federal level”. 146. 146. The The p pur urpo pose se of th thee   Action Plan  Plan  shall be to outline, create an understanding and achieve consensus across the federating units as well as within each province and area, on   who who   will be responsible and who will do what, how what,  how will  will it be done (implementation process, organizational set-up, interaction of working groups and advisory panels), and when and when would  would something be done (priorities and time scheduling). 9.2


147. In recent decad decades es a tradi tradition tion of time bound poli policy cy docum documents ents has been esta establis blished. hed. This contradicts the reality of education which is an ongoing and living process. To reflect this reality, the current document has not been bounded by a tim timee frame. It will be subjec subjectt to changes as and when ground realities demand review of specific area or areas discussed in the document. Time frames will 17

 In pursuance of the decisions taken in the 13th Meeting of Inter-Provincial Education Ministers

(IPEM) held on 9th May, 2008 in Islamabad



 National Education Education Policy 2009

be determined by the implementation plans and not by policy except where Pakistan is committed to International agreements. In short, periodic revisio revision n of the National Educatio Education n Policy will be repl replaced aced by a continuous cycle of review. After the policy is agreed, and the implementation process begins, the policy will be revised revised in the light of need identified through feedback from the implem implementers. enters. 148. Imple Implement mentation ation is cconcei onceived ved as a conti continuou nuouss pr proces ocesss of revie review, w, im implem plementati entation, on, mon monitori itoring, ng, feedback and adjustments as considered c onsidered and agreed necessary during the course of implementation. The diagram given below depicts the implementation process: NEP Reform Process IP E M

ation al N E d u c a tio nP o lic y  (N E P ) review ed&revised

P rov inces/A reas


P la n so fa c tio n forreform sprep ared

P rov inces/A reas

Im plem en tation ofR eform s

Prov inces/A reas

e n tif ific a tio io no f  Id ne wissu es

P rov inces/areasFederal

rog ress P m o nito ring &fe ed -ba ck

149. The d diagra iagram m sshows hows the proces processs as conti continuou nuous. s. Af After ter tthe he ap approv proval al of the revis revised ed po policy licy the implementation and feedback will define review. Post-policy plans of actions will be prepared by the provinces that will be incorporated in the provincial sector plans. The next step will be implementatio implementation. n. As implementation takes place there might be identification of problems with the policy or the ground realities may change. In either thereportion will bewill a need to revisit the policy. It is here of  revising the entire document thecase, relevant be revised based on feedback fromthat the instead field. The revision will have to be approved by the IPEM before incorporation into the policy document. Implementation plans will be adjusted accordingly. 150. The Inter-Provincial Education Ministers’ (IPEM) Conference, with the Policy and Planning Wing of the Ministry of Education function ing as IPEM’s federal secretariat, shall be overall responsible for facilitating, steering and monitoring the process. 9.3


151. The hi highes ghestt lev level el of m monit onitoring oring shal shalll be th throug rough h a na nationa tionall fram framework ework that w will ill iinvol nvolve ve all the federating units and the federal government as partners. The forum of the Inter-Provincial the  Inter-Provincial Education Ministers’ Conference (IPEM) shall, therefore, be the highest body to oversee and guide educational development in the as country in thisshall NEPsupport document). Technical level teams, from the federal government well as(as the articulated provinces/areas, this forum.


 Implementation Framework  Framework  55

152. The Inter-Provincial Education Ministers’ Conference has traditionally managed fe deral-interprovincial coordination in the education sector. It primarily looks at educational issues which have inter-provincial or federal-provincial implications. National Education Policy proposes to enhance the role to make it the highest body to oversee educational development in the country; consequently giving it the role of monitoring and review of the Policy. At this point of time, it remains, primarily, a voluntary body with no specific rules and procedures to guide its functioning. 153. To pe perform rform its ccurren urrentt ro role le as well as tthat hat o off ov overseei erseeing ng iimple mplement mentation ation of tthe he N Nation ational al Education Policy, the policy has proposed IPEM’s institutionalisation and strengthening without infringement of the respective roles of the federal and provincial governments envisaged in the 1973 Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. 154. The ro role le of IPE IPEM M wil willl not hind hinder er th thee rol rolee of prov provincia inciall go governm vernments ents in m monito onitoring. ring. In fa fact, ct, these will remain fundamental to progress. For reporting to IPEM Inter-tier joint reviews will be arranged and external independent reviews commissioned where problems and issues come up. Regular feedback will provide information upwards from the schools through the lower organs to the Province/Area and further upwards to the Inter-Provincial Education Ministers Conference (IPEM). 9.4


155. Owners Ownership hip and aactive ctive parti participat cipation ion o off all stakeh stakeholde olders rs and tiers shall be es essenti sential al an and d wil willl be incorporated into processes right from the onset. Emphasis will be laid throughout the process on interprovincial exchange and mutual learning of concepts and reform approaches already developed by a province or area. As a principle, modalities and time schedules for implementation of a particular area of reform may vary from province pr ovince to province within the overall common framework. 156. 156. It iiss rere-emp emphas hasise ised d th that at th thee pol policy icy sha shall ll be im imple plemen mented ted aand nd m moni onitor tored ed wi withi thin n th thee principles of  provincial autonomy and ownership of the process. The federating units remain the key actors. It will be up to each province and area to develop implementation plans, procedures and priorities. Each province will also develop mechanisms to monitor implementation. 9.5 157.

ROLE OF DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS Once the prov provincia inciall im implem plementatio entation n pl plans ans are p prepar repared ed aand nd tthe he natio national nal one colla collated, ted, the

development partners will be able to use it as an indicator of   governments’ priorities and also identification of their own area(s) of interest and support. The provincial governments will be in a better position to coordinate the work of all development partners and guide the process of educational development without issues of harmonisation. It will also help the Federal government and planning organizations at both the federal and provincial levels to focus resources. Development partners will also be co-opted into the feedback mechanism on implementation and consequent consequent review. *****



 National Education Education Policy 2009


The State of Pakistan’s Education 57


T he State of Paki stan’s stan’s E ducati ucati on 1. Tak Taking ing sto stock ck of the cur curren rentt ssitu ituati ation on is an ind indisp ispens ensabl ablee p part art of any pol policy icy dev develo elopm pment ent exercise as a mean of identifying areas of policy intervention. This chapter provides a brief review of  Pakistan’s education system through indicators of access, equity, quality, resources, and structure of the education system. The latest available profile is complemented by information on how some of the indicators have evolved over the recent years. The chapter also provides a comparison with a selected group of countries that could be regarded as benchmark or reference countries. A. ACCESS TO EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES 2. Gro Gross ss Enr Enrolm olment ent Rat Ratio io (GE (GER) R) for Ear Early ly Chi Childh ldhood ood Edu Educat cation ion (EC (ECE) E) ros rosee q quit uitee re remar markab kably ly 18 19 from 36% of all children aged 3-4 years in 2001-02 to 91% in 2005-06  and 99% in 2007-08 . This is significant progress, and the EFA mid-term targets for ECE have been met, although there remain questions about the quality of provision in so-called “Katchi” class. 3. The There re w was as con consid sidera erable ble pro progre gress ss aass w well ell,, at at the the p prim rimary ary lev level, el, whe where re tthe he Gro Gross ss E Enro nrolm lment ent Ra Rati tio o rose from 71% for 2001-02 to 84% in 2005-06 and 90% in 2007-08. Progress is evident in the Net Enrolment Ratio (NER) as well, which measures enrolment as a percentage of all children in the required grade-specific age. Primary School NER rose from 57% in 2001-02 to 66% in 2005-06 and 70% in 2007-08. There has been good progress in cutting down the drop-out rates in public sector, which fell from 43% in 2001-02 to 28% in 2005-06, but again jumped to 41% during 2007-08 for the Primary education. Despite the oscillating progress, the 66% rate is below mid-term NER target (79% for 2005-06). 4. Par Partic ticipa ipatio tion n aatt the the sec second ondary ary sch schoo ooll lleve evell h has as also also iimp mprov roved: ed: the GE GER R aand nd the NER ros rose, e, respectively, from their levels in 2001-02 of 24% and 20%, respectively, to reach 31% and 24% in 2005-06 and exactly same in 2007-08.. Enrolment ratio in tertiary education, which was 2.2% for 2002, rose significantly to its 3.7% level in 2005-06 and 4.7% in 2008. 5. Dur During ing 200 20055-06, 06, litera literacy cy rate rate ffor or all adu adults lts of 15 ye years ars and abo above ve ros rosee to to 5 51.7 1.7% % & 53. 53.5% 5% during 2007-08 and for young adults (aged 15-24 years) to 67% in 2005-06 & 68% in 2007-08. Both these rates show improvements from their 2001-02 levels, of 43% and 62% respectively20. 6. De Desp spit itee th thee p pro rogr gres ess, s, part partici icipa pati tion on an and d atta attain inme ment nt le leve vels ls duri during ng 2005 2005-0 -06 6 and and 2007 2007-0 -08 8 are are disappointingly low. Almost one-th one-third ird of primary school age children rremain emain out of school, a proportion that rises to about three-quarters for secondary school children. Clearly, Pakistan is some distance away from achieving universal schooling, even at the primary level.


Values of EFA indicators for the years 2001-02 and 2005-06 have been taken from  Education for All: Mid   Decade Assessment, Country Report: Pakistan, Pakistan, Statistical Analysis, Analysis, Ministry of Education, Government of  Pakistan, Islamabad, 2007 19

All values values for the year 2007-08 are provisional, derived from Pakistan Education Education Statistics 2007-08 , AEPAMAEPAMMinistry of Education, Government of Pakistan,2009 and subject to change/ review on finalization finalization of data 20  Education for All: Mid Decade Decade Assessment, Country Report: Pakistan, Pakistan, Statistical Analysi Analysis, s, Ministry of  Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 2007



 National Education Education Policy 2009

7. An equal concern is that except for ECE, Pakistan’s performance on GER and NER lags behind its neighbours from the primary level and above. The performance on primary completion rate is  particularly  particula rly weak, and Pak Pakistan’s istan’s adult lite literacy racy rate (49. (49.9%) 9%) is lower than the rat ratee for countries like Sr Srii Lanka (90.7%), Iran (82.4%), Indonesia (90.4%), Vietnam (90.3%), Egypt (71.4%) and India ((61%) 61%) for 21 2004-05 . 8. Low acce access ss rates rates can also also b bee at attri tribut buted ed to the lac lack ko off conf confide idence nce in the pub public lic sec sector tor sch school oolss to to deliver quality education education which has convinced parents either to shift their children to private schools or absorb additional financial burden by arranging private tuitions. If neither is affordable the households prefer to have their children drop out from school and join income earning activities. The average student of the public sector education system cannot compete in the job market. This leads to social exclusion of the already poor. The decline has primarily resulted from political interference and corrupt practices in recruitments, recruitments, transfers and p postings. ostings. Teacher Teacher absenteeism, g ghost host schools, che cheating ating in examinations are a widespread phenomenon. Primary sufferers are the most poor and underprivileged in the system. Those who make it to higher education in the public sector cannot get employment due to absence of merit or poor quality of their educational abilities. B. EQUITY IN EDUCATION 9.

The ave averag rages es ffor or P Paki akista stan, n, n note oted d above above,, m mask ask large large d diff iffere erence ncess in acc access ess acr across oss gen gender der,, et ethn hnic ic

minorities, provinces, regions and rural-urban divides. This results in weaker performance on equitable distribution of educational opportunities. It is common knowledge, as well as a proven outcome of  many studies that discrimination exists in the education system in various forms. The inequity has been the result of poor implementation implementation and social custo customs. ms. Over the years, little attention has been paid to rectify the situation. The issue of equity runs through the entire education system and has serious implications for sustainable and equitable development in the country. Unless the issue is seriously recognized and assessed in all its manifestations, a realistic policy to reprieve the situation will not evolve. 10. Dat Dataa rep report orted ed b belo elow, w, w whic hich h ar aree li limi mited ted to g gend ender er aand nd rrura urall - ur urban ban and pro provin vincia ciall di dispa sparit rities ies show that females and pupils in rural areas face systematic systematic disadvantage at all levels of education. The intersection of these dispersions compounds the disadvantage for some groups; the disadvantage faced by female students becomes multiplied if the female student happens to be in a low performing province or region. B1.

Th Thee Ge Gend nder er Dimen Dimensio sion n

11. In 2 2005 005-0 -06, 6, th thee Gen Gender der P Pari arity ty IInde ndex x (GP (GPI) I) ffor or pr prim imary ary eeduc ducati ation on w was as be below low tthe he p pari arity ty lleve evel, l, 0.82 and 0.85 in 2007-08 for both GER and NER. These figures showed significant improvements from 22 their 2001-02 figures of 0.72 . The Index Index falls fo forr the second secondary ary lev level el to 0.77 in 200 2005-06 5-06 an and d 0.77 in 2007-08 (GER and NER) but, again, registers improvement from their 2001-02 level of 0.73. Despite improvements, it is evident that girls continue to face significant disadvantage in access as they reach adulthood. The situation situation iimproves mproves sig significantly nificantly for hig higher her education, where in certain subject areas th thee index is in favour of females. Further positive features for gender parity come from the survival rates for young girls reaching Grade 5, where the GPI (1.02) in 2005-06 reveals a marginally better result 21

 Human Development Report 2007/2008 , UNDP, UNDP, 2007 and EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008 , UNESCO Paris 2008 22  Education for All: Mid-Decade assessment, Country Report: Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Government of  Pakistan, Islamabad, 2007


The State of Pakistan’s Education 59 than for young boys, which again falls to 0.96 in 2007-08. Young girls do better, as well, in transition rates between primary and lower secondary education, with a GPI of 1.07 in 2005-06 and 1.04 in 200708. 12. Gen Gender der P Pari arity ty IIndi ndices ces ffor or aadul dultt liter literacy acy rate rate ros rosee fro from m 0. 0.51 51 iin n 20 200101-02 02 to 0.5 0.58 8 in 2 2005 005-06 -06 and 0.64 in 2007-08. The GPI for youth literacy rate remained at the same level of 0.72 in both periods of  2001-02 and 2005-06, which improved to 0.78 in 2007-08. Proportion of female enrolment in vocational education was at 38% in 2005-06. Females are particularly under-represented in rural areas (36% versus 43% for urban areas), a feature that also holds for secondary education (35% for rural and 23 48% in urban areas) . Female teachers make up only 47% of primary school teachers in 2005-06, rising to 55% in secondary schools, but with only 31% in TVE24. B2.. B2

Th Thee Rural ural-U -Urb rban an Divid ividee

13. The rrela elativ tivee dis disadv advant antage age o off the rrura urall are areas as co comp mpared ared tto o th thee urb urban an be becom comes es ev evide ident nt ffrom rom the the secondary level and above. At the Early Childhood Education level, the GER for urban areas (88%) for 2005-06 was actually below the figure for rural areas (93%), and, at the primary level, the GER for urban areas (85%) was only slightly better than the 84% for rural areas. These figures moved to 86% for urban and 92% for rural areas during 2007-08. The disadvantage of the rural areas at the secondary level GER is rather large: (48% urban versus 22% rural in both 2005-06 and 2007-08). The percentage 25

gap between the two areas has widened from 20 points in 2001-02 to 26 points in 2005-06   and in 2007-08 as well. 14. Mor Moree sur surpri prisin singly gly,, rura rurall pro provis vision ion aalso lso p perf erform ormss bet better ter o on n som somee effi efficie ciency ncy m meas easure ures. s. Gr Grade ade 1 repetition rates for rural areas, was better than the urban rates (2.25 versus 3.1% in 2005-06 and 7.3 versus 5.1 in 2007-08), a comparison that holds through to other primary level Grades. The differential for Grade 5, was 2.0% versus 2.9% in 2005-06 and 3.6% versus 5.6% in 2006-07, both in favour of the rural areas. In terms of the survival rate to Grade 5, however, rural areas are at a significant disadvantage, where the survival rate is only 67% compared with 94% in the urban setting in 2005-06 and surprisingly 59.5% compared with 58.9% in 2007-08. On the other hand, in terms of teacher input, the pupil teacher ratio (PTR), is favourable for rural primary schools (39 pupils per teacher) compared with the urban (43 pupils per teacher). This is reversed for secondary schools, where the ratio of 12 pupils per teacher in urban areas ar eas is better than for rural secondary schools (18 pupils per teacher). 15. The rrura urall sch school oolss su suffe fferr mo more re fro from m po poor or fac facili ilitie ties: s: w whil hilee 90% o off urb urban an sscho chools ols ben benefi efitt fro from m water sources, only 63% of rural schools do so. A similar disadvantage pertains to sanitation facilities, which are available to 88% of urban schools but only to 56% of schools in the rural setting. B3.

Pro Provin vincia ciall and Ar Area ea Dis Dispa parit rities ies

16. The There re ar aree lar large ge d disp ispari aritie tiess in acce access ss aand nd q qual uality ity mea measur sures es ac acros rosss Pr Provi ovince ncess and Area Areas. s. A common pattern is for Sindh or Punjab to be at the top of the league, while Balochistan Balochistan is a weak  performer among the Provinces. During 2005-06, at the primary school level, the NER for Punjab



24 National Education Census 2006  Ministry of Education GoP, 2006 25

 The source for data in the section (paras 21-24) is from Education for All: Mid-Decade assessment, assessment, Country  Report: Pakistan, Statistical Statistical Analysis, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 2007



 National Education Education Policy 2009

(68%), Sindh (67%) and NWFP (66%) with B Balochistan alochistan sho showing wing 40%; which surged to 71%, 72% 72%,, 80% and 45% in Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan respectively in 2007-08. 17. Sim Simila ilarly rly,, for N NER ER aatt sec secon ondary dary lev level, el, P Punj unjab ab (2 (26%) 6%) has m more ore tthan han twi twice ce as h hig igh h an eenro nrolm lment ent rate compared with Balochistan (11%) and FATA (11%). NER at secondary level during 2007-08 arrived at 26% for Punjab, 21 % for Sindh, 25% for NWFP, 10% for Balochistan, 30 % for AJK and 12% for FATA. For GER at secondary level, in 2005-06, Balochistan had a GER of 15%, FATA scores a low GER of 14%, while the rate is highest in ICT at 82%. The corresponding values for the year 2007-08 are 13%, 16% and 74% respectiv respectively. ely. On literacy m measures easures as well, the patte pattern rn is simila similar. r. Literacy rates for young adults were highest in Sindh (71%) and lowest in Balochistan (48%) in 200506 and for 2007-08, are highest in Punjab (70%) and Sindh (69%) and lowest in NWFP (46.8%) and Balochistan (47.2%). Considering all adults (15 years old and over), literacy rates were highest for Sindh (55%) and lowest for Balochistan (37%)26, but the adult literacy rates in 2007-08 are highest for Punjab (56.6%) followed by Sindh (55.6%) and lowest for Balochistan (45.5%)27. C. QUALITY OF PROVISION 18. Thr Throug ough h the iintr ntrodu oducti ction on o off the N Nati ationa onall Edu Educat catio ion n Ass Assess essme ment nt Sy Syste stem m (N (NEAS EAS)) in 20 2005 05 iitt has become possible to assess quality of educational outcomes at school level on a scientific and quantitative basis28. The NEAS 2005 assessed Grade 4 students in the subject domains of language (Urdu and Sindhi) and mathematics, which was expanded to include science and social studies in NEAS 2006. Grade 8 students were assessed in language (Urdu and Sindhi) and mathematics in 2007, which was expanded to include science and social studies in 2008 at Grade 8 levels. Moreover, in 2008 NEAS also assessed the private school students at Grade 4 in the subjects of language and mathematics and at Grade 8 in science and social studies on pilot basis. 19. The 20 2005 05 rresu esults lts sh show ow tthat hat the ave averag ragee sc score ore of G Grad radee 4 sstu tuden dents ts iin n U Urdu rdu (36 (369) 9) aand nd Mathematics (421) was well below the scaled mean score of 500. The 2006 results confirm that the average score of Grade 4 students was less than 50% of the possible marks in each of the four subjects tested29. The results from NAT 2007 for Grad Gradee 8 students show slightly bett better er results for Urdu but again show that the average score of students is below the 50% mark in Mathematics.30.The NAT 2008 results show that the average score of Grade 8 students in social studies (516) were significantly higher than science (477). The scores in science were below set mean of 500. In 2008, Grade 4 students’ scores in mathematics (369) and Urdu reading (377) and Urdu writing (498) were also below set mean scale score of 500. Interestingly the scores of Urdu writing were significantly higher than Urdu reading and mathematics. The performance of the private school students in 2008 national assessment at grade 8 levels, in term of achievement scores, remained significantly better in social studies (561) than science




All values values for the year 2007-08 are provisional, derived from Pakistan Education Education Statistics 2007-08, AEPAMMinistry of Education, Government of Pakistan,2009 and subject to change/ review on finalization of data 28

 National Assessment Report Report 2005, National Education Assessment System, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan


 National assessment Findings Findings 2006, National Education Assessment System, Ministry of Education Government of Pakistan


 National assessment Findings Findings 2007: Mathematics and Language, Grade VIII, National Education Assessment System, Ministry of Education Government of Pakistan, mimeo 2006


The State of Pakistan’s Education 61 (512). In the same year the performance of private students at grade 4 levels in Urdu writing (652) was 31 significantly better in comparison with Urdu reading (423) and mathematics (415) . 20. Two m meas easure uress of iinpu nputt qua qualit lity y are aalso lso aavai vailab lable: le: q qual ualifi ificat cation ionss of th thee tea teachi ching ng sstaf tafff and tthe he Pupil-Teacher Ratio (PTR). In regard to teacher quality, about 47% of ECE teachers have the required qualifications in 2005-06 and same in 2007-08, a rate that approaches 100% at the primary and secondary levels32. These data must be interpreted with caution, as the standards for qualifications at this level are widely believed to be unsatisfactory. 21. The P PTR TR w work orkss out to a h hig igh h of 4 40 0 for p prim rimary ary sscho chools ols and 1 15 5 for tthe he sseco econda ndary. ry. P Paki akista stan n do does es well in terms terms of trained teachers and its pupi pupil/teacher l/teacher ratio is not as high as in India and B Bangladesh, angladesh, 33 indicating better resource support . 22. 22. The The su surviv rvival al ra rate te up to to Gra Grade de 5 is is 7 72 2%34, that is, more than 25% of students entering Primary education do not reach the last Grade. Although considerable progress has been made since 2001-02 but Pakistan’s performance still r emains emains low in comparison with its neighbours, except Bangladesh35. 23. The pro proble blem m o off dro drop p ou outt ra rates tes is sseve evere, re, aass it add addss to the n num umber ber o off ou outt of sscho chool ol ch child ildren ren.. More than 31% drop out during primary level; some 16% after middle level; 16% after secondary level and yet another 16% during higher secondary level during 2004-0536. Repeat rates are another measure of internal efficiency of the education system. The overall repeat rates for Grades 1 to 5 are between 2.1 to 2.6 and typically highest for Grade 1 and Grade 5. Repeat rates are generally lower for young girls37. On this measure, Pakistan’s experience is not too dissimilar from its reference countries38. 24. Nat Nation ional al Ed Educa ucatio tion n Cen Censu suss 200 2006 6 rev reveals eals tha thatt mo most st sc schoo hools ls ar aree spa sparse rsely ly eq equip uipped ped.. Lib Librar rary y facilities, computer resources, sports and recreation facilities are poor. However, the paucity of facilities can be gauged from the fact that only 60.2% of schools had drinking water in 2005-06 and 63.9% in 2007-08; and only 52.4% latrine facilities in 2005-06 and 60.8% in 2007-08; and 50.8% schools were having boundary walls in 2005-06 and 60% in 2007-0839, notwithstanding the fact that progre progress ss has been recorded in each of these areas since 2000-01.


 National Assessment Report Report 2008, National Education Assessment System, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan


 Education for All: Mid-Decade assessment, assessment, Country Report Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Government of  Pakistan, Islamabad, Islamabad, 2007 and provisional provisional findings from Pakistan Education Education Statistics 2007-08 , AEPAMMinistry of Education, Government of Pakistan,2009 33

World Development Indicators 2007, The World Bank, 2007


 Education for All: Mid-Decade Mid-Decade assessment, Country Report Pakis Pakistan, tan, Ministry of Education, Government of  Pakistan, Islamabad, Table 2.12, 2007


World Development Indicators 2007, The World Bank, 2007


 Reforms: Education Sector Sector 2004-2007, 2004-2007, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, 2007

37 38 39

 National Education Census: Highlights, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, 2006  Education for All by 2015: Will Will we make it? EFA Global Monitoring Report 200 2008, 8, UNESCO, 2007

 Findings from from Pakistan Pakistan Education Education Statist Statistics ics 2005-06 2005-06 and 2007-08 2007-08 , AEPAM- Ministry Ministry of Educati Education, on, GoP



 National Education Education Policy 2009

25. In re regar gard d to th thee qu quali ality ty o off hum human an res resou ources rces pro produc duced ed b by y hig higher her ed educa ucatio tion n se secto ctor, r, th thee num number ber o of  f  researchers per one million people is often used as an indicator. The number for Pakistan (75) is considerably lower than some of its reference countries such as Iran (1,279) and India (119).40 D. THE RESOURCE COMMITMENT 26. GDPFin Financ ancial ial rreso esourc es fo forr edu educat cation ion ccom ome e larg largely ely ffrom rom tthe hethe pu publi blic c sec sector tor,, whi which spend endss 2.5 2.5% % of  the (2006-07) onurces education while 0.5% is estimated to be contribution of ch thesp private sector, 41 putting the combined resources at around 3% of GDP for 2006-2007 . The data on public expenditure on education points to low priority Pakistan gives to education as it spends relatively less on education in terms of GDP (2.3%) as a s compared to the countries like Iran (4.7%), Malaysia (6.2), Thailand (4.2%), South Korea (4.6%), India (3.8%), and Bangladesh (2.5%)42. 27. In tterm ermss of cos costt str struct ucture ure b by y ty type pe of p prov rovisi ision, on, tthe he an annua nuall exp expend enditu iture re pe perr pup pupil il in tthe he pu publi blicc sector for 2005-06 amounts to Rs. 6,436 at the primary school level, rising to 6,815 for secondary education and 40,332 for the tertiary level 43. The data also show a steep rise in costs related to tertiary education over the period 2003 to 2006. 28. In term termss o off d disb isburs urseme ements nts to var variou iouss ccom ompon ponent entss o off tthe he edu educat cation ion sec sector tor,, pri prima mary ry sect sector or accounts for 44%, secondary sector 24 % and 13% to the tertiary secto sector; r; the rest being claimed b by y 44

other sectors . Disbursements on primary and secondary education, therefore, are five times more than the expenditure on tertiary sector. These ratios vary a great deal among countries, since they depend on a large number of country specific factors such as the demographic profile, cost per student in different sectors, the state of development of different sectors, and the needs of the economy. In comparison, the share of the tertiary sector in the developed econom economies ies is, on average, 2.7 times larger than for for non45 tertiary sectors, though the ratio varies widely among countries . E. STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION: PUBLIC-P RIVATE PROVISION 29. The privat privatee se secto ctorr co cont ntrib ribut utes es aabou boutt 0.5 0.5% % of the the GD GDP P to edu educat cation ion.. Insti Institut tution ionss in the pri privat vatee sector include religious/missionary institutions. They offer mainstream education as well as religious education through Deeni Madaris. The medium of instruction employed by the educational institutions is predominantly Urdu (65%). This percentage is higher for public institutions (68.3%) compared with 46

the private sector institutions is used as medium of institutions, English in 10.4%(57.2%) and other. Sindhi languages (P (Pushto, ushto, Baloch Balochi, i, instruction Arabic eetc.) tc.)inin15.5% 9.5% educational educational institutions. 30. The p publ ublic ic se secto ctorr acc accoun ounts ts ffor or ar aroun ound d 64 64% % of aall ll en enrol rolme ments nts and dom domina inates tes at tthe he le level velss of  Primary Schools (87%), Secondary (55%) and Higher Secondary Schools (66%), Inter and Degree Colleges, and general Universities. While the overall share of the private sector in total enrolment is around 36%, its enrolment share is 42% in pre-primary education, Primary stage 13%, middle stage 40 41 42

 Human Development Report 2007/2008, UNDP  Reforms: Education Sector 2004-2007, 2004-2007, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, 2007 World Development Indicators 2007, The World Bank, 2007


 P&P Wing, Ministry of Education

44 45 46

 EFA Mid-Decade Assessment 2007, Country Report: Report: Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan  Education at a Glance 2007, OECD Indicators, Indicators, OECD. 2007  National Education Census: Highlights, Ministry of education, Government of Pakistan, 2006


The State of Pakistan’s Education 63 58%, high 45% and higher secondary 34%, Technical/Vocational (52%), Vocational/ Polytechnics 47 (57%), Non-formal Basic Education (61 (61%) %) and Deeni Madaris (97%) . 31. The private sector’s role has been expanding in recent years. While there are several causes for  this relative growth, it is partly partly a reflection of the shortcomings shortcomings of the public sector to provide quality education.

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