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Paraphrase From Higher Ed McGraw-Hill

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The samples that follow all paraphrase, appropriately or inappropriately, this passage from "The Separation of Powers: A Hedge Against Tyranny?" by James Madison, found on page 113 of  The Federalist Papers.

The legislative department derives its superiority in our government from other circumstances. Its constitutional powers being at once more extensive, and less susceptible of precise limits, it can, with the greater facility, mask, under complicated and indirect measures, the encroachments e ncroachments which it makes on the co-ordinate departments. It is not infrequently a question of real nicety in legislative bodies, whether the operation of a particular par ticular measure will, or will not extend beyond the legislative sphere. On the other side, the executive power being restrained within a narrower compass, and being more simple in its nature; and the judiciary being described by landmarks, still less uncertain, projects of usurpation by either of these departments would immediately betray and defeat themselves. Nor is this all: as the legislative department alone has access to the pockets of the people, and has in some constitutions full discretion, and in all a prevailing influence over the pecuniary rewards of those who fill the other departments; a dependence is thus created in the latter, which gives still greater facility to encroachments of the former. Plagiarized paraphrase: 

Madison notes that the legislative branch has preeminence over the executive and judicial branches of  the government. The powers granted to it by the constitution are simultaneously wider and less limited, so it can more easily disguise the infringements it makes on the other branches; it is not unusual for legislatures to debate whether a particular item will or will not reach beyond the legislative domain. In comparison, the executive branch is restrained to a more restricted sphere, and is less complex; the udicial branch is limited to particular areas; therefore, their attempts to usurp others' power would be obvious. In addition, the legislature has access to taxation, and has in some states full power and in all states considerable influence over the pay awarded to the members of the other branches. This makes the latter branches dependent on the legislative branch, allowing still easier encroachments by the legislature (113). (Both the structure and the words wor ds of this sentence resemble the original too closely for it to be an acceptable paraphrase.) Plagiarized paraphrase: 

Madison explains that there is a superiority of the legislative department of the government. It has more extensive constitutional powers than the other branches that allow it to mask its encroachments on them. Projects by the narrower executive ex ecutive branch or by the judiciary to usurp power betray themselves t hemselves immediately, unlike similar projects by the legislative branch. In addition, the pockets of the people can be reached by the legislative department, which also has influence over the pecuniary rewards to members of the judicial and executive branches. The other branches therefore have a dependence on the legislative branch, which allows encroachments by the legislature on the other branches with w ith still greater facility (113). (This paraphrase repeatedly relies on o n Madison's wording, which constitutes plagiarism.)

 

Plagiarized paraphrase: 

The legislative branch is perhaps the most powerful of the three branches of the government. First, the constitution gives it broader powers than are given to the other branches. This could conceivably permit the legislative branch gradually or secretly to procure powers originally intended for the other two--a feat impossible for the executive branch, with the president's powers being more limited, or for the udiciary, whose realm of control is restricted. Second, the legislative branch holds the purse strings. str ings. It has the power to tax t ax the people, and it also controls either completely or partially the salaries paid to the members of the other othe r branches. This can have the result of making the executive and an d judicial branches beholden to the legislative branch. (This is plagiarism because the original source of these ideas is not credited; cre dited; the author and page numbers must be cited using the appropriate method for your style of documentation.) Plagiarized paraphrase: 

Madison argues that the legislative branch is perhaps the most powerful of the three branches of the government. First, the constitution gives it broader powers than are given to the other branches. This could conceivably permit the legislative branch gradually or secretly to procure powers originally intended for the other two--a feat impossible for the executive branch, with the president's powers being more limited, or for the judiciary, whose realm of control is restricted. Second, the legislative branch holds the purse strings. It has the power to tax the people, and it also controls either completely or partially the salaries paid to the members member s of the other branches. This can have the result of making the executive and judicial branches beholden to the legislative branch. (This is plagiarism because the page numbers have been omitted. Just as with a quotation, the source of  a paraphrase or summary must be correctly corre ctly cited.) Acceptable paraphrase: paraphrase: 

Madison argues that the legislative branch is perhaps the most powerful of the three branches of the government. First, the constitution gives it broader powers than are given to the other branches. This could conceivably permit the legislative branch gradually or secretly to procure powers originally intended for the other two--a feat impossible for the executive branch, with the president's powers being more limited, or for the judiciary, whose realm of control is restricted. Second, the legislative branch holds the purse strings. It has the power to tax the people, and it also controls either completely or partially the salaries paid to the members member s of the other branches. This can have the result of making the executive and judicial branches beholden to the legislative branch (113). Retrieved from http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0072873469/student_view0/avoiding_plagiarism_tutorial/summarize_paraphrase/examp les_of_paraphrases.html  on 24 september 2010 les_of_paraphrases.html  

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