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QUALITY CONTROL in clothing Neeti Banga  Asst Professor  LD, NIFT New Delhi

 

What is QUALITY ? Definitions 1.

General: Measure of excellence or state of being General: free from defects, deficienci deficiencies es and significant

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variations ISO 8402-1986 standard defines Quality as- the totality of features and characteristics of a product or  service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or  implied needs.

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Manufacturing:: Strict and consistent adherence to 2. Manufacturing Personalization measurable and verifiable standards- to achieve Analytics uniformity of output that satisfies a specific customer  or user requirements. Save Accept All Marketing

 

What is QUALITY ? Definitions 3.Objective : Measurable and verificable aspect of a 3.Objective thing/ phenomenon,expressed in numbers or  This website stores data such as quantities cookies to enable essential site , such as lightness, heaviness, thickness, functionality, thinness, as well as marketing,softness, hardness..etc . personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

characteristi, or property of a 4. Subjective- Attribute, characteristi,

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thing or phenomenon that can be observed and interpreted , and may be approximated (quanitified) Personalization but cannot be measured , such a beauty , feel, Analytics flavor, taste..etc Marketing

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 American Society for for Quality control (ASQC) defines quality as :

“ systematic approach to the search of excellence” (productivity, cost reduction , scheduled performance , sales, customer satisfaction, team work, the botom line ) . This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site functionality, as  well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time  or accept the default settings.

Quality may also mean :

-the degree of excellence an item may possess -being the best that money can buy 

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-meeting a specification 

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No more than 1% defective lot.

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-craftsmanship

-anything Japanese !

 





Quality in business, engineering and manufacturing has a interpretation as the non-inferiority  non-inferiority or  or  superiority of superiority  of something. Consumers may focus on the specification quality  quality 

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of a product/service, or how it compares to competitors in the marketplace. Producers might measure the conformance quality,, or degree to which the product/service was quality

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produced correctly.

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Many different techniques and concepts have evolved to improve product or service quality.

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In Apparel industry , fashion dictates the marketplace & it has variables in terms of- Raw  materials,, manufacturing processes, operators and materials so on , the importance of quality is not universally universally recognized.

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Lots of success stories have been built on quality quality –  –   like Levi‟s, Jockey international, etc

QUALITY IS THE MAIN INGREDIENT IN A

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PRODUCT THAT DELIGHTS THE CUSTOMER BY EITHER MEETING OR EXCEEDING EXPECTATIONS .  .  Personalization Marketing

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Quality isAllone of the most important criteria their  Accept customers use in selecting a product or service.

 



 

Ignorance to quality, has a tremendous cost ,which may be bigger than the gross profit. Unless its broken down into details, its impact is not realized by management !

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Quality audits recover that ¼ of all factory hands do not produce anything - they just rework things that have not been done right for the first time .  Add in expense expense of repairing/ replacing replacing flawed Privacy Policy products that slip into the market- total burden of  Marketing “bad quality” quality” can mount to a punishing punishing 30% 30% or more Personalization of production costs. Analytics Save

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  Are consumers ready to pay more for high quality products ? Do they look for top quality when shopping ?

Findings of a survey done in US by Grey Advertising in 90‟s was : This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

a/ 87 % consumers always look for top quality- means its their no. 1 criterion.

b/ 84 % consumers will pay more for top quality, suggesting that for  today – today  –VALUE VALUE –  – has a different meaning !

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VALUE: BEST QUALITY IN GIVEN PRICE. 

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Six Benefits of quality are quality are :  :  

GREATER MARKET SHARE  SHARE  . 

HIGHER GROWTH RATE

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HIGHER EARNINGS 

PREMIUM PRICE

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LOYAL CUSTOMERS

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HIGHLY MOTIVATED EMPLOYEES EMPLOYEES  

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Eight Dimensions of quality are quality are :  :  

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Reliability  Conformance  Durability  Servicability 

Aesthetics Perceived Quality 

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Performance  Features

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HIGHER / BETTER QUALITY PRODUCT can also be used as a “ product Differentiation Strategy “ in the marketplace. This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

Earlier saying “ If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it “. 

Is changing to “ If it ain’t broke- IMPROVE IT “ !  Privacy Policy Marketing Personalization Analytics Save

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QUALITY IS REFLECTION OF CUSTOMER’S OPINION ON THE VALUE THEY SEE IN YOUR This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site PRODUCT ,as COMPARED TO THAT OF functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time YOUR COMPETITOR. or accept the default settings.

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SOME FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CONSUMER’S PERCEPTION OF

QUALITY :

PRICE & apparent value for money : customers tend to associate quality with higher price. TECHNOLOGY : factors such as – as –fabric fabric and seam strength , colorfastness, shrinkage ,waterproofing, warmth, sweat

1. 2.

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absorption other factors that are affected by the state of  technology and in the industry. PSCYCOLOGY : A garment can be attractively prices & best that technology can offer, BUT if its not attractive in appearance . If its not fashionable ( as per the target group or period) , or if it does not meet aesthetic requirements of consumer , then it is not a Privacy Policy quality garment. Individuality of appearance.. Image enhancement Marketing TIME ORIENTATION  ORIENTATION : This indicates “ durability”of appearance 4. Personalization and function .Its importance varies with the categories of  Analytics garments.  Save

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SOME FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CONSUMER‟S PERCEPTION OF QUALITY : 6. EASE OF CARE :crease and stain resistance, shape retention, This website stores data such as washability, cookies to enable essential site etc functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

7. CONTRACTUAL : This refers to product guarantee , the refund policy of a store, and so on..

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8. ETHICAL: ETHICAL: honesty of advertising , courtesy of sales personnel ..etc Personalization Analytics Save

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There are two common quality-related functions within a business. One is Quality assurance   All actions taken to ensure that standards and procedures are adhered to and that delivered products or services meet performance requirements.

It is the prevention of defects, defects, such as by the deployment of a quality management system and preventative activities like FMEA. FMEA. This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

 A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a procedure in operations management for analysis of potential failure modes within a system for classification by severity or determination of  the effect of failures on the system. aii l u r e m o d e s  are any errors or defects in a process, design, or  Fa item, especially those that affect the customer, and can be Privacy Policy potential or actual. Marketing ec c t s a n al a l y s i s  refers to studying the consequences of those Effe Personalization failures ItAnalytics is widely used in manufacturing industries in various phases of  the product life cycle and is now increasingly finding use in the Save Accept All service industry.

 

  The other is Quality

Control 

W h a t i s q u a li li t y c o n t r o l ?   A system for ensuring for ensuring the maintenance of proper standards in manufactured goods, goods, especially by periodic random This website stores data such as inspection cookies to enable essential site of the product functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You  may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

It is the detection of defects, defects, most commonly associated with testing which takes place within a quality management system typically referred to as verification and validation.

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The term is conventionally used to describe the process by which management seeks to monitor the quality of output , to Personalization compare it with the accepted standards  standards and to act upon the Analytics difference. Save Term Accept All Term –  –Q Quality Assurance- may be used to define the function‟s Assurance-    Marketing

purpose.

 

Cost of quality The KEY to profitable garment manufacture is to provide the for the best combination at the lowest cost , ““the economic quality level “.  “.  This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

The cost of quality comes from :  Style

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Fabric and trimmings

Make, including repairs and rejects  Quality control function.

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 It is the combination of characteristics of properties of  a product which make the product usable. The extent to which a product successfully serves the purpose of the user ,during usage is called “fitness of 

use”. This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site  functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

  of use is determined by the features of a Fitness product that a user can recognize as beneficial .. ..fitting fitting of garment, beauty of painting, status of club membership, fresh baked taste of bread , clear 

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reception of radio reception , timeliness of bus, trains etc.. etc Personalization It should be judged from a consumer‟s point of view  Analytics and not from ether manufacturer‟s or seller‟s perspective.  perspective. Save Accept All   Marketing

 

For a garment to be FIT FOR USE (provided its acceptable style) : It should be free free from defects such a stains, material material (fabric / leather ) defects , loose hanging threads (untrimmed) , misaligned buttons and button holes, defective zippers , and so on.

1.

Must fit properly for the labelled size .The kind of fit and shape.

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Must perform satisfactorily in normal use , meaning that a garment must be able to withstand normal laundering / dry cleaning/ pressing cycles without color loss or shrinkage ; seams must not come apart ,fabric must not tear ,etc .

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FITNESS OF PURPOSE COMPRISES OF : Quality of design  Personalization Marketing

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Quality of conformance Quality of delivery and service.

 

Quality needs of the retailers 

Consistency  – (dependant on clear specifications with Consistency – tolerances, the means to achieve the required quality This website stores data such as cookies level to enable essential site ; the will to conform of Management and functionality, as well as marketing, workforce). personalization, and analytics. You 

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Delivery on time.

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Low cost to support competitive price.

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STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL ( SQC) :  : 

SQC is the term which implies that only a proportion of garments are examined and that they are chosen according to the rules which come from the theory of statistics.

*Based on AQL levels- acceptable quality level (to consumer) *Based on LTPD- low tolerance percent defective (The level of "poor' This website stores data such as cookies to enablethat essential siteconsumer is willing to tolerate only a small quality the functionality, as well as marketing, percentage of the personalization, and analytics. You time) may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings. 

TOTAL QUALITY CONTROL (TQC)-was a movement which arose

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as a reaction to of SQC..it implied a return to the idea that Marketing quality is a part the whole manufacturing process “. “good Personalization

It emphasises on “ ZERO DEFECTS “ and “RIGHT FIRST TIME “. “.   Analytics

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Quality Control   At sampling stage …  *Sample could be one or small no. of garments ,which are examined. If  sample is representative of the whole, it is possible to monitor  quality at the minimum cost .



*It is done in a way in which we get best chance to look at garments and key features .

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QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT

They have to work on methods to improve quality and it has to be done at the minimum cost , balancing the expense of the

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department against the savings it makes possible in terms of  reducing the repairs and rejects.

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One aspect is to define the quality or level of work of the plant and the workplaces in it. The maintenance of quality at agreed levels Save Accept All means giving clear specifications with approved tolerances. Analytics

 

Quality Control Department



Earlier job was to stop bad work leaving the factory and reaching the consumer. Now stress is

Extra costs

Savings

Planning

Delays in delivery

on modern thinking of  reducing the amount of  bad work being made.

Prevention

Repairs

Inspection

Remakes

Monitoring the effects

Returns

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Savings in cost of  repairs/ rejects + speeds Marketing Personalization delivery  

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There could be some extra costs outside QC dept- like machines and training also Save

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GOOD QUA L I TY IS CHEAP POOR  CHEAP, , IT IS QUALITY WHICH IS EXPENSIVE EXPENSIVE..

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Extra costs  costs 



Planning costs definition of required quality characteristics and

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quality level by market research Establishment of revised quality control procedures  Evaluation of sampling Privacy Policy levels and selection of  Marketing examination process Personalization Calculation Calculatio n of appropriate  Analytics manning levels Save

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Prevention costs Specifications and

tolerances  Fabric and trimmings to specifications machinery in   Appropriate machinery good condition  Correct methods and good training

 

Extra costs  costs 

Inspection/Appraisal costs  properly selected and This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site trained examiners functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You  Standard examination may change your settings at any time or acceptprocedures, the default settings. with suitable equipment.



 

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Testing costs Rapid feedback of   Personalization Analytics information, checked againstAccept results. results.    Save All Marketing



Monitoring checking the efficiency of  the examination Seeking out trouble spots Comparing defect ratios with budgets Comparing the costs of  prevention with those of  poor work.

 

Savings   Savings Delays 

Shipments which are held over  and awaiting the completion of  repairs require extra capital to

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finance them If dispatch dates are delayed orders may be lost. With the modern emphasis on „just in time manufacture‟ and Privacy Policy small inventories ,balancing Marketing problems caused by repairs can cut output drastically. Personalization Analytics Save

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Repairs and remake 





Repairs cost money in extra handling and supervision ,restitching. Remakes may mean extra cutting and problems of  shading , which result in good parts being discarded ,with a high cost in wasted material. The labor cost of a repair is usually estimated at least half  the total labor cost of garment , to which overheads have to be added

 

Savings   Savings

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Returns

These may mean lost orders . Often it is too late to replace the returned garments and the revenue is lost for ever.

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Plant quality level THIS IS THE LEVEL OF QUALITY WHICH CAN BE ATATINED WITHOUT UNUSUAL CARE AND AT AN ECONOMIC  PRODUCTION RATE .”   It can be with respect to section, process, machine or operative .

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Depends on :

Type of machinery Work aids

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Processes in use

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Cloth, leather and trimmings being used

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Operative skills

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Plant quality level 

It MUST be recognized so that it can be compared with the AQL and full consideration given to any shortfall when considering prodn of a new style. Long term “quality improvement program “ can often raise both productivity level and plant quality level.

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It is also related to outlet :

-branded outlet concentrate on individuality and aesthetic features or  on well known qualities associated with the brand Privacy Policy -chains Marketingstores place emphasis on conformity and consistency , details like –no like  –no thread ends‟ etc. etc.   Personalization

Too many minor defects can cause rejection of garments.

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Consistency Accept Allis very important to maintain the average PLANT QUALITY LEVEL.

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Quality Specification Specifications s 



It helps if the factory standards and specifications do not change very often- outdated copies should be with drawn immediately.  Aim should be minimum minimum paper and maximum maximum information.

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Factory specifications  cloth and trimmings, button spacing  Thread and needle types and sizes , by fabric and seam time



SPI 

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Seam types, seam margins and tolerances Standard blocks and size ranges

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Cutting standards

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Quality Specification Specifications s 

Style of Garment Specifications Special size ranges and grading 



Key features and quality points



Special tolerances

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Fabric and trimmings, colors and shades – shades – shade cards checked  regularly to fading  Points to watch

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Should be easy to read  More visuals than words where possible Personalization Marketing

  

Dimensions and tolerances on sketches

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P.O.M should be clear   Accept All

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Defects : Material defects can be defined into three categories :  Critical : prevents usability or performance 

Major : may affect usability or interfere with performance Minor : will not affect usability

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First quality : If quality of the garment is evaluated as acceptable.

Rest are evaluated as seconds, thirds, irregulars, scraps depending Marketing on no. and type of defects.

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 Average rate of defective garments is 10 – 10 – 12 %.

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NACERAP This is a word which stands for : N = NAME  This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

C= CAUSE  E=EFFECT  R= REPAIR   A=ACTION 

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P=PREENTIONS

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 A= APPEARANCE 

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NACERAP 



It provides a systematic approach to defects and is very useful in training . Thee has to be a name and record for all faults which occur /likely to

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occur ..each identified with picture – picture –name name and if possible a sample. There could be more than one cause for the same defect- this needs to be defined.

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It is important to specify if certain defects should be repaired ,since it  may cost too much. Repair may be done in many ways but one Analytics maybe best. Personalization

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