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Saraf Foto Nomi 12

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The Sensory-Somatic Nervous System The sensory-somatic system consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves an nerves and d 31 pairs of spinal nerves. nerves.

The PNS  consists of sensory PNS consists neurons running neurons  running from stimulus receptors that receptors  that inform the CNS of the stimuli motor neurons running neurons running from the CNS to the muscles and glands  glands  - called effectors effectors  - that take action. The CNS CNS consists  consists of the spinal cord and cord  and the brain brain   The peripheral nervous system  system  is subdivided ◦

into the sensory-somatic nervous system and system  and the autonomic nervous system  system 



peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the system of nerves outside of the central nervous system (CNS system (CNS or brain and spinal cord).

The central nervous system (CNS) is responsible for all involuntary nerve action, meaning you ! N!T have #or".to initiate it or thin" about it in order for it to


The peripheral nervous system (PNS) runs (PNS) runs from your spinal cord to your appendages (arms, legs, hands and feet) and you ! $%&' T! consciously and voluntarily ma"e this nervous system move or #or".

ncluded in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are the *+ pairs of cranial nerves, * pairs of spinal spinal   nerves and branches entire body. included in their this system areto allthe sensory nerves%lso and the sympathetic and parasym parasympathetic pathetic nerves. The parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system are part of the autonomic nervous system (%NS).



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The Cranial Nerves Nerves



 lfactory


olfaction smell vision

 ptic


 culomotor 

motor @ 

eyelid and eyeball muscles

& Trochlear 

motor @

eyeball muscles

& Trigeminal


Sensory# facial and mouth sensation %otor# cheAing

&  !bducens

motor @

eyeball movement

& ,acial


Sensory# taste %otor# facial muscles and salivary glands

&  !uditory


hearing and balance

9 *lossopharyngeal


Sensory# taste %otor# sAalloAing

9 &agus


9  !ccessory


9 7ypoglossal

motor @

Contain 3=> of all the a?ons connecting to the brain.

main nerve of the parasympathetic nervou s system  system  +NS sAalloAing6 moving head and shoulder  tongue muscles

@Note# @Note# These  These do contain  a feA sensory neurons that bring back signals from the muscle spindles  spindles  in the muscles they control.



/hinencephalon$ !mygdala /hinencephalon$  !mygdala$$ 7ippocampus$$ Neocorte? Neocorte?$$ 7ippocampus ganglia$ )ateral ventricles (asal ganglia$


Central Brain nervous system


&pithalamus$ Thalamus &pithalamus$ Thalamus$$ 7ypothalamus$ Subthalamus$$ 7ypothalamus$ Subthalamus +ituitary gland gland$$ +ineal gland gland$$ Third ventricle


Tectum$ Cerebral peduncle$ Tectum$ +retectum$ %esencephalic duct

(rain stem

%ete %e tenc ncep epha halo lon n /hombencephalon


Spinal cord

+o +ons ns$$ Cere Cerebe bell llum um %edulla oblongata







 Two hemispheres  Two  Separaed !" fal# cere!ri  Inerconneced !" corp$s callos$m 

 Three poles  Three s$rfaces  %i&e lo!es 

O$er 'ra" maer ( inner whie maer


   

I has )* !illion ne$rons+ ,)+--- miles of a#ons a# ons and --+---+---+--+---+---+---+----+--- s"napses )/0mm hic1 ))-- s2 cm G"ri and s$lci Imporan s$lci/ 3enral 45 4 5olandic6 s$lc$s+ Laeral 4S"l&ian6 s$lc$s+ s$lc$s+ 3alcarine s$lc$s Parieo/occipial


Brodmann/ 07 Brodmann areas  Area 0/ Primar" moor area/ Precenral '"r$s

Area +8+)/ Primar" sensor" area/ Poscenral '"r$s  Area ,+ 9/8+ )0+ )+ 00/07 : %ronal associaion

area 

Area Area  Area  Area  Area  Area 

08/ Primar" a$dior" associaion area )-+ )8+ ))/ A$dior" areas *+ 7/ Sensor" associaion areas 0-/ Sereo'nosis area 87/ Primar" &is$al area 89+ 8;/ <is$al associaion areas


Lies !eween cenral+ parieo/occipial ( laeral s$lci.

=a>or areas/ 486 Somaosensor" area I 4)6 Somaosensor" area II 46 Area * ( 7 406 Area 0-


486   

Somaosensor" Area I Poscenral '"r$s Areas +8+) A?erens A?ere ns from opposie side of !od" and !oh sides of face

Sensor" hom$nc$l$s 4lile man6 5emo&al/ ca$ses loss of @ne o$ch ( posiion sense and [email protected]s in discriminaion of sie and shape.


4)6 Somaosensor" Area II  =osl" !$ried in s$perior wall of S"l&ian @ss$re  A?erens from from !oh sides of !od"  5emo&al ca$se d [email protected]s [email protected]s of discriminaion power


46 Sensor" Associaion Area 4 Areas * ( 76 46  Locaed !ehind S I 

Inp$s from S I+ &enro!asal n$cle$s of halam$s+ &is$al and a$dior" core#.  5emo&al ca$ses amorphosynthesis  Bilaeral remo&al ca$ses constructional constructional   apraxia and apraxia and loss of spaial orienaion 406 Area 0-/ Sereo'nosis 0-/ Sereo'nosis Area  Locaed

in s$pramar'inal '"r$s


    

Appreciaion of primar" senses Discriminaion of sim$li Sereo'nosis 5eco'niion of spaial relaionship Ine'raion of 'eneral+ a$dior" and &is$al sensor" si'nals


Lies in fron of cenral s$lc$s

=a>or areas/ =oor core# and prefronal areas


Primar" =oor Area Area 0  Pr Precenral ecenral '"r$s  =oor hom$nc$l$s  %ace+ phar"n#+ &ocal cords and respiraor" m$scles ha&e !ilaeral represenaion 


S$pplemenar" moors$lc$s area mediall" area mediall" !e"ond he mar'in of cenral o&er medial s$rface I is concerned wih comple# mo&emens in&ol&in' plannin'


Premoor Area Area ,  Locaed anerior o moor core#   Topo'raph"  T opo'raph" is same as moor core# core# 

Pos$ral mo&emens o assis [email protected] as1s  Anerior par de&elops moor ima'e and send si'nals o poserior par or primar" moor core#.


%ronal e"e @eld Area 9  Lies anerior o premoor area  Sim$laion ca$ses con>$'ae de&iaion of

e"es o opposie side S$ppressor Areas Areas Areas 0s+ )s+ 9s+ 8;s ( )0s  Inhi!iion of srech reCe# reCe#  Pr Pro>ecs o>ecs o !asal ' 'an'lia an'lia also 


Lies anerior o moor areas 0+ , ( 9.  =a>or areas are ;/8+ )0+ ) and 00/07.  Silen areaor'an of mind

Connections:  Aferents-  %i!ers from dorsomedial n$cle$s of halam$s pro>ec o areas ;/8) and 00/07. Dorsomedial n$cle$s recei&es recei&es a?er a?erens ens from h"pohalam$s %i!ers from anerior n$cle$s of halam$s pro>ecs circ$i o area )0. I forms a par of Pape


Eferents Areas )0s and 9s pro>ec o ca$dae  %ronoponine rac from area8 3oricoe'menal rac from area 9  Pro>ecions from areas ; ( 8- o e'menal reic$lar for maion and anerior ( &enral halamic formaion n$clei Intercortical  connections connections %rono/occipial pro>ecion 4&is$al a'nosia6  %i!ers form areas 00/07 and area 89 pass o emporal lo!e


Functions of Prefrontal lobe: 3onnecions wih halam$s+ h"pohalam$s ( oher areas of core# 8. 3onrol of AS ). . 0.


3onrol of personali" 3onrol of emoional a?ecs 3onrol of !eha&io$r ( social conscio$sness 5esponsi!le for resin' EEG


. Aleraions in social !eha&io$r 5emo&al of anerior cin'$lae '"r$s a!olished moral sense of ri'h or wron'   Loss of sh"ness and fear 0. Impairmen of memor" *. Impairmen of learnin' and inellec$al f$ncions Electrical stimulation3han'es in a$onomic aci&i"


Lies !elow laeral s$lc$s Primar" a$dior" area/ Area area/  Area 08 A$dior" associaion area/  area/  Areas )-+)8+)) Fernic1es area/  area/  Area ))


Functions: 8. Percepion and processin' a$dior" si'nals ). Sense of e2$ili!ri$m in poserior par of s$perior emporal '"r$s . Lan'$a'e and memor" 0. Fernic1es area is associaed in inerpreaion and $ndersandin' of a$dior" ( &is$al si'nals


  Klűver-Bucy syndrome 4!ilaeral emporal lo!ecom"6 8. O!edien+ h"perpha'ic 4omnipha'ia6 ( h"perse#$al ). Loss of fear <is$al a'nosia . 

0. *.

Oral e#ploraion H"per/meamorphosis


  

Lies poserior o parieo occipial s$lc$s Areas 87+ 89+ 8; Primar" &is$al and &is$al associaion areas


For1s in close associaion wih h"pohalam$s 3oncerned wih emoions and memor"




@'h or Ci'hJ aci&aed d$rin' emer'encies

 

e#ercise e# ercise aci&i" or &i'oro$s ph"sical re& $p he !od" o respond o si$aions+ s$ch as an'er or fear ha $pse homeosasis


opposie e?ecs on is ar'e or'ans res or di'esJ red$ce ener'" $se promoes ◦

 he di'esion of food+ he sora'e of ener'"+ he eliminaion of wases 'eneral homeosasis



The autonomic nervous system consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons that run betAeen the central nervous system especially the hypothalamus hypothalamus and  and medulla oblongata oblongata and various internal organs such as the#



t is responsible for monitoring conditions in the internal environment and bringing about appropriate changes in them. The contraction of both smooth s mooth muscle and cardiac muscle is controlled by motor neurons of the autonomic system. The actions of the autonomic nervous system are largely involuntary involuntary in  in contrast to those of the sensory-somatic system. t also differs from the sensory-somatic system is using tAo groups of motor neurons to stimulate the effectors instead of one. The first$ the preganglionic neurons$ neurons$ arise in the CNS and run to a ganglion in the body. 7ere they synapse Aith run to the effector organ cardiac muscle$ postganglionic neurons neurons$ $ Ahich smooth muscle$ or a gland. The autonomic nervous system has tAo subdivisions$ the sympathetic nervous system and system  and the parasympathetic nervous system. system.


 Thoracol$m!ar  er&e @!ers ori'inae !eween T8 ( L) 


Craniosacral  Nerve fbers emerge rom brain & sacrum 


 Shor+ Shor+ li'hl" m"elinaed pre'an'lionic ne$rons pre'an'lionic ne$rons  Lon'+ Lon'+ $nm"elinaed

pos'an'lionic pos'an'lionic ne$rons  ne$rons

Gan'lia close Gan'lia  close o spinal cord



Pre'an'lionic ne$rons /  /  ◦

3holiner'ic    4 release ace"lcholine 3holiner'ic ace"lcholine 6


 Pos'an'lionic ne$rons  ne$rons 

: release norepinepherine norepinepherine a  a ar'e or'ans : ie. Adrener'ic

 Adr Adrenal enal med$lla med$lla   : releases releases epinepherine ( norepinephe n orepinepherine rine ino !lood : ie. Adrener'ic Adrener'ic  


Locaed onl" on s"mpaheic ar'e or'ans

 5espond onl" o norepinepherine released !" pos'an'lionic ne$rons 4precise 4precise e?ecs6 or

 Epinepherine ( norepinepherine released !" adrenal adren al med$lla ino !lood 4'eneral e?ecs6


 

 

Alpha 1:o blood 1: In walls vessels leading to places other than seletal muscles! brain & lungs" Not on heart #cardiac muscle$ Alpha %: %: n membranes o platelets"

'eta 1: #cardiac 1: n heart muscle$ & idneys  'eta %: %:  n coronary arteries! bronchioles & on smooth muscle walls o digestive 

& urinary systems


 

Alpha 1: ()cites1: #constricts$ smooth muscles in certain blood vessels & in spincters directing blood to seletal muscles *ilates pupils"

 

 

'eta 1: 1: Cardiac ,uscle Increases heart rate & strength 'eta %: %: *epresses #dilates$ smooth muscle in

 

Alpha %: blood %: +romotes clotting

bronchioles & coronary arteries increasing blood ow to heart and air ow to lungs"


Gan'lia close o or on ar'e or'ans

 Pre'an'lionic ne$rons / lon'  Pos 'an'lionic ne$rons / shor


Pre'an'lionic ne$rons release ace"lcholine  ace"lcholine  3holiner'ic


 Pos'an'lionic ne$rons release ace"lcholine  3holiner'ic ace"lcholine 


%o$nd on s1eleal m$scle cells re'$laed !" moor ne$rons.

=oor e$ron


B ,ound on dendrites 4 cell bodies of postganglionic  postganglionic   neurons of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of !NS.

 %o$nd on paras"mpaheic paras"mpaheic ar'e  ar'e or'ans.


Nicotinic: Nicotinic:  n seletal muscle cells  n postganglionic postganglionic   dendrites & cell bodies in both sympathetic & parasympathetic  Almost always e)cite

,uscarinic: ,uscarinic:  n all target organs o parasympathetic  ,ay e)cite or decrease activity 

depending on target


Cardiac ,uscle - .lows heart rate and strength o contraction  *igestive .ystem - Increases digestive activity including secretions & peristalsis"

 Increases ow o blood to liver! pancreas & digestive organs by vasodilation o appropriate vessels"  (ye - Causes constriction o Iris


Inerfere wih sim$laor" or depressin' dep ressin' e?ecs of ne$roransmiers !" !loc1in' he recepors on ar'e or'ans. Bloc1er

ormal ne$roransmier can wih sie. recepor !eca$se !loc1er co&ers he!ind !indin'


Bloc1 recepor !indin' sies pre&enin' he !indin' of epinepherine or norepinepherine Bea 8 !loc1ers 8 !loc1ers on hear ◦

pre&en hear rae increase ( arrh"hmias in cardiac paiens wiho$ inerferin' wih oher s"mpaheic e?ecs. E#amples 

 Acebutolol #.ectral$! Acebutolol #.ectral$! ,etoprolol  ,etoprolol  #/opressor$or #/opressor $or Inderal"


 Alpha 8 !loc1ers 8 !loc1ers : Decrease !lood press$re in paiens wih h"perension wiho$ inerferin' wih oher s"mpaheic e?ecs. : E#ample  Phenolamine


 =$scarinic !loc1 !loc1ers ers : Bloc1 paras"mpaheic e?ecs on ar'e or'ans : E#ample  Aropine  Aropine   Used opicall" d$rin' e"e e#ams o dilae p$pils  Someimes $sed prior o s$r'er" o red$ce sali&aion ( respiraor" secreions





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