PROJECT REPORT On SURVEY OF MOBILE PHONES
SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT TOWARDS THE AWARD OF
SESSION – 2012-13
SUBMITTED TO:MS. GITANJALI LECT. OF COMMERCE
SUBMITTED BY: JASPREET KAUR B.Com,1rd year ROLL NO. 5035
ARYA COLLEGE WOMEN SECTION, LUDHIANA
I have great pleasure in presenting my project entitled Mobile Phones. I take this an opportunity to express my deepest gratitude & ineptness to all those who contributed indirectly their valuable time & assisted me in my project. I would like to thank my project guides, all the faculty members. For this approval & also for her valuable guidance & support in completing my project of Survey of Mobile Phones.
CONTENTS S.No. 1 Particulars Introduction about the project
Review of Literature
History of the Companies
Analysis and Interpretation
INTRODUCTION OF MOBILE PHONE
A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station. In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming and photography. Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smart phones. The first hand-held mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing around 2.2 pounds (1 kg). In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first to be commercially available. From 1990 to 2011, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 6 billion, penetrating about 87% of the global population and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid.
Inventor Charles E. Alden claimed, in the 29 April 1906 issue of the New York World, to have invented a device called the “vest pocket telephone" although Alden never had the chance to produce this device in large quantities. The first mobile telephone calls were made from cars in 1946. Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service was made on 17 June in St. Louis, Missouri, followed by Illinois Bell Telephone Company's car radiotelephone service in Chicago on 2 October. The MTA phones were composed of vacuum tubes and relays, and weighed over 80 pounds (36 kg). There were initially only 3 channels for all the users in the metropolitan area, increasing later to 32 channels across 3 bands. This service continued into the 1980s in large portions of North America. Due to the small number of radio frequencies available, the service quickly reached capacity. In 1956, the world’s first partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA), was introduced in Sweden. John F. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products in 1973, played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone equipment. Mitchell successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone. Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, was the key researcher on Mitchell's team that developed the first hand-held mobile telephone for use on a cellular network. Using a somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made the first call on a handheld mobile phone on 3 April 1973 to his rival, Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications like streaming media. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized 4th-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to 10-fold over existing
3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard (offered in the U.S. by Sprint) and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.
All mobile phones have a number of features in common, but manufacturers also try to differentiate their own products by implementing additional functions to make them more attractive to consumers. This has led to great innovation in mobile phone development over the past 20 years. The common components found on all phones are:
A battery, providing the power source for the phone functions. An input mechanism to allow the user to interact with the phone. The most common input mechanism is a keypad, but touch screens are also found in some high-end smartphones.
Basic mobile phone services to allow users to make calls and send text messages. All GSM phones use a SIM card to allow an account to be swapped among devices. Some CDMA devices also have a similar card called a RUIM.
Individual GSM, WCDMA, iDEN and some satellite phone devices are uniquely identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number.
Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones, and offer basic telephony. Handsets with more advanced computing ability through the use of native software applications became known as smartphones. Several phone series have been introduced to address a given market segment, such as the RIM BlackBerry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs; the SonyEricsson Walkman series of musicphones and Cybershot series of
cameraphones; the Nokia Nseries of multimedia phones, the Palm Pre the HTC Dream and the Apple iPhone. Text messaging The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging. The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000, and subsequently many organizations provided "on-demand" and "instant" news services by SMS. SIM card GSM feature phones require a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card, to function. The SIM card is approximately the size of a small postage stamp and is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit. The SIM securely stores the service-subscriber key (IMSI) and the Ki used to identify and authenticate the user of the mobile phone. The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device. The first SIM card was made in 1991 by Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient for the Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja. Multi-card hybrid phones A hybrid mobile phone can hold up to four SIM cards. SIM and RUIM cards may be mixed together to allow both GSM and CDMA networks to be accessed. From 2010 onwards they became popular in India and Indonesia and other emerging markets, attributed to the desire to obtain the lowest on-net calling rate.
In Q3 2011, Nokia shipped 18 million of its low cost dual SIM phone range in an attempt to make up lost ground in the higher end smartphone market. Kosher phones There are Jewish orthodox religious restrictions which standard mobile telephones do not meet. To fulfill this demand, phones without Internet access, text messaging or cameras are required. These restricted phones are known as kosher phones and have rabbinical approval for use in Israel and elsewhere by observant Orthodox Jews. Some are even approved for use by essential workers (such as health, security and public services) on the sabbath, even though use of any electrical device is restricted. Although these phones are intended to prevent immodesty, some vendors report good sales to adults who prefer the simplicity of the devices.
USE OF MOBILE PHONES
Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, including keeping in touch with family members, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. Some people carry more than one cell phone for different purposes, such as for business and personal use. Multiple SIM cards may also be used to take advantage of the benefits of different calling plans—a particular plan might provide cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming. The mobile phone has also been used in a variety of diverse contexts in society, for example:
A study by Motorola found that one in ten cell phone subscribers have a second phone that often is kept secret from other family members. These phones may be used to engage in activities including extramarital affairs or clandestine business dealings.
Some organizations assist victims of domestic violence by providing mobile phones for use in emergencies. They are often refurbished phones.
The advent of widespread text messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel; the first literary genre to emerge from the cellular age via text messaging to a website that collects the novels as a whole.
Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo! and small independent news companies such as Jasmine New in Sri Lanka.
The United Nations reported that mobile phones have spread faster than any other technology and can improve the livelihood of the poorest people in developing countries by providing access to information in places where landlines or the Internet are not available, especially in the least developed countries. Use of mobile phones also spawns a wealth of microenterprises, by providing work, such as selling airtime on the streets and repairing or refurbishing handsets.
In Mali and other African countries, people used to travel from village to village to let friends and relatives know about weddings, births and other events, which are now avoided within mobile phone coverage areas, which is usually greater than land line penetration.
The TV industry has recently started using mobile phones to drive live TV viewing through mobile apps, advertising, social tv, and mobile TV. 86% of Americans use their mobile phone while watching TV.
In parts of the world, mobile phone sharing is common. It is prevalent in urban India, as families and groups of friends often share one or more mobiles among their members. There are obvious economic benefits, but often familial customs and traditional gender roles play a part. It is common for a village to have access to only one mobile phone, perhaps owned by a teacher or missionary, but available to all members of the village for necessary calls.
Mobile banking and payments In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message. Kenya's M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Cash may be deposited or withdrawn from MPESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country, and may be transferred electronically from person to person as well as used to pay bills to companies. Branchless banking has also been successful in South Africa and Philippines. A pilot project in Bali was launched in 2011 by the International Finance Corporation and an Indonesian bank Bank Mandiri. Some mobile phone can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes or through contactless payments if the phone and point of sale support near field communication (NFC). This requires the co-operation of manufacturers, network operators and retail merchants to enable contactless payments through NFCequipped mobile phones.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CELL PHONE
Has it happened to you that sometimes you go out but forgot your cell phone at home and so you’re not feeling complete. There’s a feeling somewhere inside that you’re missing something, a sense of insecurity sometimes prevails… welcome to the world of cell phone addiction! Cell phones are having a great influence in our live and are very convenient to keep with us. Cell phones are a faster and more effective way to transfer information. Indeed, it is a resource that gives its user’s great advantages. They say, if something is of great utility (usage, etc), it will surely have its own problems as well; cell phones are no exception. In earlier times cell-phone used to be a craze, symbol of money and success but nowadays even kids find it a neccessity of life. I would want to list some quick good and bad things about a typical cell phone. The list is not typical to any phone, just a generalization.
The more you talk, the more you know how to talk and the better your communication skills become. This is applicable if you’re a sensible person and keep note of your interacting habits over the phone. It can be a communication tutorial!
Nothing more than a cell phone comes to great help in emergency. You are driving by the freeway and the vehicle jams and cell phone comes to your rescue. You are stuck in a lone place, again call somebody and ask for directions.
Parents can be a little less worried about their kids by being in constant touch with them.
If you’re a net-savvy, you can have Internet handy all the time and anywhere the signal of your cell phone provider can reach. Trendy and stylish cell phones can be used as a bait to receive attention. It can be part of fashion and styling. From the industy and economy point of view, cell phone companies (communication industry) is florishing with market capital in billions. This is a good thing for the economy to be smooth and healthy.
Some people (especially teens) get so much addicted to cell phones for talking, video, messaging, games, etc that they forget the real purpose of the phone and waste large part of their time in unnecessary interaction over their cell phones.
Nothing more can be a distraction for a teached in the classroom, when a student’s phone rings. Cell phones are increasingly becoming a problem for the schools during classroom hours and are becoming a means of cheating during examinations and other kinds of ability tests. All this is really bad and does hurt the future of the student, who doesn’t realize that he/she is him/her-self responsible for it.
Health of those living in the vicinity of cell phone towers is becoming a growing concern. Towers result into an area with concrete development along with destruction of natural features (vegetation etc) around the place. The towers also emit strong electromagnetic signals, which can be health hazard for those living nearby and who are getting exposed to strong radiations continuously during a good span of their lives.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS: In order to complete the research of the project successfully, certain information related to the problem considered in the project is very much necessary and that important data is collected is used for further analysis. Primary source of data and secondary source of data are the two ways for collecting the necessary data for the project. The detail explanation of the primary source of data and secondary source of data is given below: Primary source of data: In this project, semi structured interviews are conducted for with various participants for collecting the primary source of data. Questioners an interview protocol is are prepared by the researchers in order to conduct the semi structured interviews. The (Eleven managers have been interviewed, namely the operational manager, two area managers, three general managers, three assistant managers and two supervisors from different departments. – this is what you say in 3.5 you need to be consistent!!! Also please revise and correct the total no of respondents #: is it 45 as under 3.5 or is it 50 as in 3.6?) research problem considered and the relevant solution for that problem can be obtained from the primary source of data. Secondary source of data: The core information data collected of the project can be better understood by the in relation to secondary sources of data. Various sources like the internet and intranet websites of the AMT COFFEE LTD as well as journals, published articles, informal discussions and websites are studied in order to collect the secondary sources of data and these sources are also called as the secondary sources.
Objectives of the Study
The research done with the basic objective is to know the preference of the people towards different brands of mobile phones.
OBJECTIVES To study and analyses the consumer perception regarding mobile phones. To determine the most preferred brand of mobile phone among consumers. To study the reasons for preferring particular brand of mobile phones. To study the difficulties face by the consumer. To study the awareness about the product. To study the level of satisfaction of the product among the consumers. To test the hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables To determine the frequency with which something occurs..
Research refers to the systematic method consisting of defining the problem, forming the hypothesis, collecting the facts and reaching certain conclusion in the form of solution towards concerned problems. Research Methodology may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In this we study various steps that are taken up by the researcher in his research problem along with the logic behind them. It has the wider scope as compared to research methods that is we also considered the logic behind the methods we used in the research study and explain why we are using a particular method and we are not using the other.
RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is a framework or a blue print for conducting the research project. It gives details of the procedure necessary to for obtaining the
information needed to solve the research problem in hand. In this way a research design lays the foundation for conducting a research product. It involves the following tasks: Defining the information needed. Designing the exploratory, descriptive and casual phases of research. Specify the measurement and scaling procedures. Constructing and pretesting the questionnaire.
Specifying the sampling process and sample design as well as size.
SCOPE / IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
1. Research promotes scientific and logical thinking and facilitates development of habit of logical thinking among individuals and organizations. 2. Role of researcher in business has increased in modern times. Due to complex nature of modern time business and increasing inter relationship in the economy as a whole. Hence, research has assumed the added significance. 3. It facilitates the development of individual, organization and country wide policies and plans. 4. It helps in decision making and facilitates efficient and effective allocation of limited resources. 5. It provides basis for nearly all government policies in our economy system. 6. It is equally important for social scientist in studying social relationship and seeking answers to various social problems. 7. Research is very important to study the behavior which requires special skills and tolls to study the relationship in the context of behavior.
DATA COLLECTION There are two sorts of data available: Primary Data Secondary Data
PRIMARY DATA Primary data are the data collected to solve a problem or take advantage of any opportunities on which a decision is depending. These data are basically observed and recorded by the researcher for the first time.
SECONDARY DATA Secondary data are those which are not originally collected by the investigator himself but are obtained from any published or unpublished source already existing. Secondary data are those which are already in existence and which have been collected for some other purpose than the answering of the question in hand.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD: Questionnaire is formal set of questions for obtaining information from the respondents. It is a formal and structured technique for data collection that consists of series of questions in it. If one wants to know that why people purchase a particular product. The natural procedure is to ask them. Thus questionnaire method has to be widely used. We apply Questionnaire Method for data collection.
SAMPLE SIZE – The sample size is of 20 sample.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
1Q. Do you own a mobile phone? Yes No Out of 100 Samples 100 0 No. of people in %age 100% 0%
Interpretation The survey revealed that 100% of the people have the Mobile Phones where 0% people do not have any mobile phone.
2Q. What brand of mobile phone are you using now? Out of 100 Samples 68 04 12 12 04 00 No. of people in %age 68% 4% 12% 12% 4% 0%
Nokia Motorola Sony Ericssion Samsung LG Others
INTERPRETATION In this study most of the respondents have Nokia Mobile handsets. Out of total respondents, 68% respondents are having Nokia Mobile handsets, 12.% are having Sony erricson& Samsung Mobile handsets, 4% are having Motorola and LG Mobile handsets.
3Q. Why do you choose this model?
Out of 100 Samples Price Function Size Appearance Trend Advertisement 10 48 08 12 20 02
No. of people in %age 10% 48% 8% 12% 20% 2%
In this study most of the respondents have found that all most the respondents
1-6 months 6-12 months 1-3 yrs. 3-5yrs.
Out of 100 Samples 14 24 44 18
No. of people in %age 14% 24% 44% 18%
are purchasing the mobile handsets on the basis of their functions and their percentage is 48%. Then 12% are purchased on the basis of appearance, 10% on the basis of price, 8 & 20 on the basis of Size & Trend respectively. 4Q. How long have you been using mobile phone?
INTERPRETATION In this study we come on the result that 44% people use their mobile phones for 1-3yrs. And 18%, 14%, 24% using 3-5yr. , 1-6 months & 6-12 months respectively.
Out of 100 Samples Less than1 hr. 1-2 hr. 2-3hr. More than 3 hr. 29 37 13 21
No. of people in %age 29.% 37% 13% 21%
5Q.How much air time do you spend each day on the phone?
From this study we conclude that with in 1-2 hrs. people spend air time each day on handset with a percentage of 37%. And rest is 29%, 21%, 13% . people spend air time each day on handset in the < 1hr, >3 hrs. & 2-3 hr. respectively. Satisfaction level Out of 100 Samples No. of people in %age Very Satisfied 23 23% Satisfied 57 57% Neutral 17 17% Un-Satisfied 03 3% Very Un-Satisfied 00 0% 6Q what aspects do you value in your everyday mobile phone usage (ease of use, battery life, messaging, alarm clock, etc.)?
INTERPRETATION In this question we conclude that 57%, 22%, 12% & 09% people prefer battery, ease to use, messaging & e-mailing use these features in their handsets.
Out of 100 Samples Less than 6 months 6 month- 2 Yr. 2-4 yrs. More than 4 yrs. 32 48 17 03
No. of people in %age 32% 48% 17% 3%
7Q. How often you change your mobile phone model?
INTERPRETATION This study tells that 32% respondents change their handsets from less than 6 months & 48% respondents change their handsets within 6months- 2 yr. And 17% respondents within 2-4yrs. &3% respondents for more than 4 yrs.
8Q. If given a chance would you like to shift to another mobile phone Out of 100 Samples 73 27 No. of people in %age 73% 27%
Yes No model?
INTERPRETATION This study tells that 73% respondents would like to shift to another mobile phone model & 27% respondents would not like to shift another mobile phone model.
9Q.Do you think prolonged use (use under long period) of mobile phone would cause health problem e.g. cancer. Yes No No Comment Out of 100 Samples 48 29 23 No. of people in %age 48% 29% 23%
INTERPRETATION From this study we come to know that 48% respondents think that prolonged use of mobile phones would cause health problem. An 29% respondent doesn’t think that prolonged use of mobile phones would not cause health problem & 48% which is the majority of the respondents say no comment.
10. Do you think that advertisement made by company informs you about their new products? S.NO. A B C PARTICULARS YES NO UNDECIDED NUMBER %AGE 34 12 4 68 24 8
Interpretation The 34 person says yes and 12 person says no and 4 person were no response.
Based on advertisements made by company, would you like to go for more connection for you or your family in future?
S.NO. A B C
PARTICULARS YES NO UNDECIDED
NUMBER %AGE 38 7 5 76 14 10
Interpretation: The 38 person says yes and 7 person says no and 5 person were no response.
The respondents are aware about all the brands. The major source of information was TV for the respondents. Mostly customers prefer the Nokia brand. Very less number of consumers are facing the problems. Very less number of consumers has a complaint to manufacturer.
Due to time and resource constraints the survey was conducted withinthe city of Ludhiana and as such the study might not present a true picture of consumer perception about selected brands of refrigerators. A small sample size of 50 respondents may not be representative of the universe. The respondent’s bias might have crept in while filling the questionnaires.
Although care was taken to make this study objectively, interviewers’ bias might have distorted the results to some extent.
Continuous innovation by considering the level of competition. After sale service should be improved. More variety should be there so that they can meet the customer’s satisfaction.
Dear Sir/Madam I am Jaspreet Kaur, student of B.Com-1 st at Arya College for Women Section, Ludhiana and I am doing a project “Survey of Mobile Phones” Please cooperate to fill this questionnaire. Basic Information: Name _________________________________________
(d) Above 45
1Q. Do you own a mobile phone? YES 2Q. NO
What brand of mobile phone are you using now?(you can tick more than Nokia Sony Ericssion Motorola Samsung LG
If Other (please specify)_______________________ 3Q. Please also write your model of phone. (use ","to separate if you have more than one phone) e.g. V70,8310,6688,[email protected]
4Q. Why do you choose this model? (You can tick more than one option) Price Appearance Function Trend Size & Weight Advertisement
Others (please specify……………………………….. 5Q. How long have you been using mobile phone? 1-6 months 1Yr.-3Yr 6-12 months 3Yr. – 5Yr.
If More(please specify)……………………………………. 6Q. How much air time do you spend each day on the phone? < 1 hr. More than 3hr. 1 – 2 hr. 2 – 3 hr.
7Q. What aspects do you value in your everyday mobile phone usage (ease of use, battery life, messaging, alarm clock, etc.)? ………………………………………………………………………. 8Q. Are you satisfied with the overall performance your mobile phone provider? Very Satisfied Unsatisfied Satisfied Very Unsatisfied Neutral
9Q. Would you like to need anything more in your mobile phone? Please specify………………………………………………. 10Q. How often you change your mobile phone model? Less than 6 months 2Yr. – 4Yr. 6 Months – 2 Yrs. >4 Yrs.
11Q. If given a chance would you like to shift to another mobile phone model? YES NO
12Q. If Yes, then why you will change the mobile phone model? Reasoning: ……………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………….. 13Q. Do you think prolonged use (use under long period) of mobile phone would cause health problem e.g.cancer Yes No No Comment
“Thanks for your valuable time and co-operation”
WEBSITE: www.NOKIA.com www.MOTOROLA.com www.sonyerricson.com www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.samsung.com
BOOKS: C. R. Kothari Research Methodology