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68/2013 - 29 April 2013 

Taxation trends in the European Union

The overall tax-to-GDP ratio in the EU27 up to 38.8% of GDP in 2011 Labour taxes remain major source of tax revenue This News Release, published on 29 April 2013, has been revised, following the correction of an error in the calculation of the average top personal income tax rate for France and Slovakia for 2013. This correction also slightly affects the data for the EU27 and the euro area.

 

1

2

The overall tax-to-GDP ratio , meaning the sum of taxes and social contributions in % of GDP, in the EU27  stood 2

at 38.8% in 2011, from 38.3% in 2010 and 38.4% in 2009. The overall tax ratio in the euro area  (EA17) increased to 39.5% in 2011, up from 39.0% in 2010 and 39.1% in 2009. The tax burden varies significantly between Member States, ranging in 2011 from less than 30% in Lithuania Lithuania   (26.0%), Bulgaria Bulgaria   (27.2%), Latvia (27.6%), Romania Romania   (28.2%), Slovakia Slovakia   (28.5%) and Ireland Ireland   (28.9%), to more than 40% in Denmark Denmark   (47.7%), Sweden Sweden   (44.3%), Belgium Belgium   (44.1%), France France   (43.9%), Finland Finland   (43.4%), Italy Italy   (42.5%) and Austria Austria (42.0%).  (42.0%). Between 2010 and 2011, the largest increases in tax-to-GDP ratios were recorded in Portugal Portugal   (from 31.5% to 33.2%), Romania Romania   (from 26.7% to 28.2%) and France France   (from 42.5% to 43.9%), and the highest falls in Estonia Estonia   (from 34.1% to 32.8%), Sweden Sweden (from  (from 45.4% to 44.3%) and Lithuania Lithuania (from  (from 27.0% to 26.0%). 3

This information comes from the 2013 edition of the publication “Taxation trends in the European Union ” issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union   and the Commission’s Directorate-General for Taxation and Customs Union. Union . This publication compiles tax indicators in a harmonised framework based on the European System of Accounts (ESA 95), allowing accurate comparison of the tax systems and tax policies between EU Member States.

implicit This Lowest website stores datatax suchrates as on labour in Malta, on consumption in Spain and on capital in Lithuania cookies enable source essentialofsite Thetolargest tax revenue in the EU27 EU27   is labour taxes, representing nearly half of total tax receipts, functionality, as well as marketing, followed by consumption taxes at roughly one third and taxes on capital at around one fifth. personalization, and analytics. You 4 may The change your settingsaverage at any time GDP-weighted implicit tax rate  on labour in the EU27 EU27 was  was up from 35.4% in 2010 to 35.8% in 2011. or accept the default settings.  Among the Member States, the implicit tax rate on labour ranged in 2011 201 1 from 22.7% in Malta Malta,, 24.6% in Bulgaria Bulgaria,, 25.5% in Portugal Portugal and  and 26.0% in the United Kingdom, Kingdom, to 42.8% in Belgium in Belgium,, 42.3% in Italy in Italy and  and 40.8% in Austria Austria..

Privacy ThePolicy average implicit tax rate on consumption in the EU27 EU27 was  was up from 19.7% in 2010 to 20.1% in 2011. Implicit tax rates on consumption were lowest in 2011 in Spain Spain (14.0%),  (14.0%), Greece Greece (16.3%),  (16.3%), Latvia Latvia (17.2%)  (17.2%) and Italy and Italy (17.4%),  (17.4%), Marketing and highest in Denmark Denmark   (31.4%), Sweden Sweden   (27.3%), Luxembourg Luxembourg   (27.2%), Hungary Hungary   (26.8%) and Finland Finland   Personalization (26.4%). In Analytics the EU27 EU27 in  in 2011, the average implicit tax rate on capital for the Member States for which data are available was down compared with 2010 in ten Member States and up in nine. Implicit tax rates on capital ranged from 5.5% in Save Accept All Lithuania to Lithuania  to 44.4% in France France..

 

Tax revenue and implicit tax rates by type of economic activity  Implicit tax rate* on:

Tax revenue, % of GDP 2000

2010

Labour

2011

2000

2010

Consumption 2011

2000

2010

Capital

2011

2000

2010

2011

EU27** 

40.4

38.3

38.8

36.4

35.4

35.8

20.1

19.7

20.1

:

:

:

EA17** 

40.9

39.0

39.5

38.3

37.4

37.7

19.8

19.3

19.4

29.9

27.2

28.9

Belgium

45.1

43.8

44.1

43.6

42.7

42.8

21.8

21.2

21.0

29.5

28.7

30.3

Bulgaria

31.5

27.5

27.2

38.1

23.5

24.6

18.5

21.4

22.4

:

:

:

Czech Republic

33.8

33.5

34.4

41.2

38.5

39.0

18.8

20.8

21.4

18.7

16.6

17.6

Denmark Germany

49.4 41.3

47.4 37.9

47.7 38.7

41.0 39.1

34.6 36.8

34.6 37.1

33.4 19.2

31.3 19.7

31.4 20.1

36.0 27.0

: 19.7

: 22.0

Estonia

31.0

34.1

32.8

37.8

36.8

36.2

19.5

25.4

26.1

6.4

9.8

7.9

Ireland

31.3

28.3

28.9

28.7

26.2

28.0

25.5

22.3

22.1

:

:

:

Greece*** 

34.6

31.7

32.4

33.8

31.5

30.9

16.5

16.4

16.3

:

:

:

Spain

34.1

32.1

31.4

30.5

32.7

33.2

15.8

14.7

14.0

29.3

:

:

France

44.2

42.5

43.9

39.4

38.1

38.6

21.2

19.4

19.9

40.1

39.7

44.4

Italy

41.5

42.5

42.5

42.0

42.7

42.3

18.3

17.4

17.4

28.1

33.0

33.6

Cyprus

30.0

35.6

35.2

21.6

26.9

26.7

12.6

19.0

17.7

24.8

30.6

24.7

Latvia

29.7

27.2

27.6

36.7

33.1

32.0

18.4

16.9

17.2

12.3

7.9

9.9

Lithuania

30.0

27.0

26.0

41.1

31.7

32.0

18.0

17.6

17.5

6.8

7.1

5.5

Luxembourg

39.2

37.5

37.2

29.9

31.5

32.8

23.0

27.1

27.2

:

:

:

Hungary

39.8

37.9

37.0

41.4

38.4

38.4

27.2

27.5

26.8

18.5

19.9

17.3

Malta

27.3

32.6

33.5

20.5

21.7

22.7

15.6

18.7

19.0

:

:

:

Netherlands

39.9

38.8

38.4

35.0

37.0

37.5

23.8

26.9

26.3

20.0

13.0

12.9

Austria

43.0

41.9

42.0

40.1

40.5

40.8

22.2

21.3

21.2

27.2

23.3

23.6

Poland

32.6

31.8

32.4

33.6

30.3

32.2

17.8

20.5

20.8

20.5

18.6

18.3

Portugal

31.1

31.5

33.2

22.3

24.0

25.5

18.3

17.6

18.0

31.1

28.4

31.6

Romania

30.2

26.7

28.2

:

30.0

31.4

17.0

18.1

21.6

:

:

:

Slovenia

37.3

37.8

37.2

37.6

35.0

35.2

23.3

23.6

23.0

17.3

21.9

20.5

Slovakia

34.1

28.1

28.5

36.3

32.2

31.9

21.7

17.7

18.7

21.5

14.3

14.8

Finland

47.2

42.5

43.4

44.0

39.0

39.6

28.5

25.1

26.4

38.1

28.7

27.4

Sweden

51.5

45.4

44.3

46.8

39.1

39.4

26.3

27.9

27.3

42.7

29.2

27.0

United Kingdom

36.8

35.4

36.1

25.9

25.8

26.0

19.0

18.3

19.5

44.0

35.7

34.9

Norway

42.6

42.6

42.5

37.1

36.3

36.2

31.2

29.1

:

42.2

41.9

41.9

Iceland

37.1

35.0

35.9

:

:

:

25.6

22.8

22.8

:

:

:

* **

Implicit tax rates (ITR) express aggr aggregate egate tax rev revenues enues as a percentage o off the potential tax base for each field (see (see footnote 4). EU27 and EA17 overal overalll tax ratios are calculated as GD GDP-weighted P-weighted averages of the Member States. States. The EA17 ITR on capital is calcula calculated ted using estimated data for missing Member States. *** Provisional  : Data not available

This website stores data such as cookies to enable essential site Highestastop income tax rates in Sweden and highest corporate tax rate in France functionality, wellpersonal as marketing, 5 personalization, and analytics. The average top personalYou income tax rate  in the EU27 the EU27 is  is 38.7% in 2013, up from 38.1% in 2012, but well below may the change settings any time levelyour of 2000 at at 44.8%. The highest top rates on 2013 personal income are observed in Sweden Sweden   (56.6%), or accept the default settings. Denmark (55.6%), Denmark  (55.6%), Belgium Belgium (53.7%),  (53.7%), Portugal Portugal (53.0%),  (53.0%), Spain Spain and  and the Netherlands Netherlands (both  (both 52.0%), and the lowest in Bulgaria Bulgaria (10.0%),  (10.0%), Lithuania Lithuania (15.0%),  (15.0%), Hungary Hungary and  and Romania Romania (both  (both 16.0%). Privacy ThePolicy average top corporate tax rate in the EU27 the  EU27 is  is 23.0% in 2013, stable compared with 2012, but well below its 6 level in 2000. The highest statutory tax rates   on 2013 corporate income are recorded in France (36.1%), Malta Malta   Marketing (35.0%) and Belgium (34.0%), and the lowest in Bulgaria Bulgaria and  and Cyprus Cyprus (both  (both 10.0%) and Ireland Ireland (12.5%).  (12.5%). Personalization 7

The average standard VAT rate  in the EU27 EU27 is  is 21.3% in 2013, slightly up compared with 2012. In 2013 compared Analytics with 2012, six Member States increased their VAT rate, and only Latvia Latvia reduced  reduced it. In 2013, the standard VAT rate varies from 15.0% in Luxembourg Luxembourg and  and 18.0% in Cyprus Cyprus and  and Malta Malta to  to 27.0% in Hungary Hungary and  and 25.0% in Denmark Denmark   Save Accept All and Sweden Sweden..

 

Top statutory income tax rates and standard VAT rates, % Tax on personal income 2000

2012

2013*** 

Tax on corporate income 2000

2012

2013*** 

VAT**  2000

2012

2013*** 

EU27* 

44.8

38.1

38.7

31.9

23.0

23.0

19.2

21.0

21.3

EA17* 

47.1

43.1

44.3

34.4

25.4

25.7

18.1

20.0

20.4

Belgium

60.6

53.7

53.7

40.2

34.0

34.0

21.0

21.0

21.0

Bulgaria

40.0

10.0

10.0

32.5

10.0

10.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

Czech Republic

32.0

15.0

22.0

31.0

19.0

19.0

22.0

20.0

21.0

Denmark

62.9

55.4

55.6

32.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

Germany

53.8

47.5

47.5

51.6

29.8

29.8

16.0

19.0

19.0

Estonia

26.0

21.0

21.0

26.0

21.0

21.0

18.0

20.0

20.0

Ireland

44.0

41.0

41.0

24.0

12.5

12.5

21.0

23.0

23.0

Greece

45.0

49.0

46.0

40.0

20.0

26.0

18.0

23.0

23.0

Spain

48.0

52.0

52.0

35.0

30.0

30.0

16.0

18.0

21.0

France

59.0

46.8

50.2

37.8

36.1

36.1

19.6

19.6

19.6

Italy

45.9

47.3

43.0

41.3

31.4

27.5

20.0

21.0

22.0

Cyprus

40.0

38.5

38.5

29.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

17.0

18.0

Latvia

25.0

25.0

24.0

25.0

15.0

15.0

18.0

22.0

21.0

Lithuania

33.0

15.0

15.0

24.0

15.0

15.0

18.0

21.0

21.0

Luxembourg

47.2

41.3

43.6

37.5

28.8

29.2

15.0

15.0

15.0

Hungary

44.0

20.3

16.0

19.6

20.6

20.6

25.0

27.0

27.0

Malta Netherlands

35.0 60.0

35.0 52.0

35.0 52.0

35.0 35.0

35.0 25.0

35.0 25.0

15.0 17.5

18.0 19.0

18.0 21.0

Austria

50.0

50.0

50.0

34.0

25.0

25.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

Poland

40.0

32.0

32.0

30.0

19.0

19.0

22.0

23.0

23.0

Portugal

40.0

49.0

53.0

35.2

31.5

31.5

17.0

23.0

23.0

Romania

40.0

16.0

16.0

25.0

16.0

16.0

19.0

24.0

24.0

Slovenia

50.0

41.0

50.0

25.0

18.0

17.0

19.0

20.0

20.0

Slovakia

42.0

19.0

25.0

29.0

19.0

23.0

23.0

20.0

20.0

Finland

54.0

49.0

51.1

29.0

24.5

24.5

22.0

23.0

24.0

Sweden

51.5

56.6

56.6

28.0

26.3

22.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

United Kingdom

40.0

50.0

45.0

30.0

24.0

23.0

17.5

20.0

20.0

Norway

47.5

40.0

40.0

28.0

28.0

28.0

:

:

:

Iceland

:

31.8

31.8

30.0

20.0

20.0

:

:

:

* **

Arithmetic average If two VAT rates rates were applicable applicable during a y year ear the one being in for force ce for more than six months or introduced introduced on 1 July is indicated indicated in the table. *** The cut-off date for ta taking king into account account changes changes in tax rates was 11 March 2013. This :website data such as Data stores not available

cookies to enable essential site functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You may change your settings at any time or accept the default settings.

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1. The overall tax-to-GDP ratio measures the tax burden  as the total amount of taxes and compulsory actual social contributions as a percentage of GDP. This definition differs slightly from the one used in the common Eurostat / DirectorateGeneral for Taxation and Customs Union Statistics in Focus 55/2012, " In 2011 tax revenues increased to 40.0% of GDP in the EU-27 and 40.8% of GDP in the EA-17", which includes voluntary and imputed social contributions. GDP-weighted averages are used for the calculation of EU and euro area aggregates. 2. EU27: Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Euro area  (EA17): Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and Finland. 3. "Taxation trends in the European Union", only available in English. This publication and News Release are based on data available on 11 March 2013. The publication can be purchased from authorised sales agents or downloaded free of charge in PDF format from the Eurostat or Directorate-General for Taxation and Customs Union websites: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/government_finance_statistics/publications/other_publications http://ec.europa.eu/taxtrends 4. Implicit tax rates (ITR) measure the average tax burden on different types of economic income or activities, i.e. on labour, consumption and capital. ITR express aggregate tax revenues as a percentage of the potential tax base for each field. The ITR on labour   is is the ratio between taxes and social contributions paid on earned income and the cost of labour. The numerator includes all direct and indirect taxes and social contributions levied on employed labour income, while the denominator amounts to the total compensation of employees working in the economic territory increased by taxes on wage bills and the payroll. It is calculated for employed labour only (and therefore excludes the tax burden on social transfers, including pensions). The average may conceal important variations variati ons in the tax burden across the income distribution. The ITR The  ITR on consumption is consumption  is the ratio between the revenue from consumption taxes and the final consumption expenditure of households on the economic territory. The ITR on capital includes, in the numerator, the taxes levied on the income earned from savings and investments by households and corporations and taxes related to stocks of capital stemming from savings and investment in previous periods. The denominator of the capital ITR is a proxy of the world-wide capital and business income of Member States' residents for domestic tax purposes. Trends in the capital ITR reflect a wide range of factors and should be interpreted with caution.  All ITRs for the EU and the euro area are calculated as GDP-weighted averages. 5. The top personal income tax rate   refers to the tax rate for the highest income bracket adding surcharges of general application. 6. The adjusted statutory tax rate on corporate income   takes into account corporate income tax (CIT) and, if they exist, surcharges, local taxes, or even additional taxes levied on tax bases that are similar but often not identical to the CIT. 7. Value Added Tax, or VAT, is a general, broadly based consumption tax assessed on the value added to goods and services. The standard VAT rate is the rate to which a majority of goods and services are subject, while the Member States may apply reduced VAT rates to goods and services enumerated in a restricted list.

Issued by: Eurostat Press Office

For further information: Laura WAHRIG Tel: +352-4301-37 687

Tim ALLEN Louise CORSELLI-NORDBLAD

[email protected] Thomas HEMMELGARN Tel: +32-2-295-66 56 [email protected]

Tel: +352-4301-33 444 This website stores data such as [email protected]u cookies to enable essential site functionality, as well as marketing, personalization, and analytics. You news releases on the internet:  Eurostat internet: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat may change your settings at any time or accept the defaultnews settings. Taxation releases on the internet:  internet: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/taxation/index_en.htm

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