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United Kingdom–United States Relations

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United Kingdom–United States Relations



United Kingdom–United States relations
tween the United States Armed Forces and the British
Armed Forces. Canada has historically been the biggest
importer of USA goods and the biggest exporter of goods
to the USA, however that has changed with the large increase in imports from China. However, in accordance
with the United States Census Bureau, as of January
2015, the UK was fifth in terms of exports and seventh in
terms of import of goods.[6]
The two countries combined make up a huge percentage of world trade, a significant impact of the cultures
of many other countries and territories, and are the
largest economies and the most populous nodes of the
Anglosphere, with a combined population of around 385
million in 2015. Together, they have given the English
language a dominant role in many sectors of the modern
world. In addition to the Special Relationship between
the two countries, most British people perceive the U.S
positively, with the USA coming in the top three of polls
consistently [7][8] while at the same time according to a
2015 Gallup poll, 90% of Americans view Great Britain

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, and
the President of the United States, Barack Obama talk during the
39th G8 summit in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, June

British–American relations, also referred to as AngloAmerican relations, encompass many complex relations
ranging from two early wars to competition for world
markets. Since 1940 they have been close military allies
enjoying the Special Relationship built as wartime allies,
and NATO partners.

The two nations are bound together by shared history, an 1 Country comparison
overlap in religion and a common language and legal system, and kinship ties that reach back hundreds of years,
including kindred, ancestral lines among English Amer- 2 Special Relationship
icans, Scottish Americans, Welsh Americans, ScotchIrish Americans and American Britons respectively. To- Main article: Special Relationship
day large numbers of expatriates live in both countries.
The Special Relationship characterizes the exceptionally
Through times of war and rebellion, peace and estrange- close political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military
ment, as well as becoming friends and allies, Britain and historical relations between the two countries. It is
and the US cemented these deeply rooted links during specially used for relations since 1940.
World War II into what is known as the “Special Relationship”, described in 2009 by British political commentator Christiane Amanpour as “the key trans-Atlantic
3 History
alliance”,[1] which the U.S. Senate Chair on European
Affairs acknowledged in 2010 as “one of the cornerstones
3.1 Origins
of stability around the world.”[2]
Today, the United Kingdom affirms its relationship with
the United States as its “most important bilateral partnership” in the current British foreign policy,[3] and the
American foreign policy also affirms its relationship with
Britain as its most important relationship,[4][5] as evidenced in aligned political affairs, mutual cooperation
in the areas of trade, commerce, finance, technology,
academics, as well as the arts and sciences; the sharing
of government and military intelligence, and joint combat operations and peacekeeping missions carried out be-

See also: Thirteen Colonies
After several failed attempts, the first permanent English
settlement in mainland North America came in 1607
at Jamestown in the Colony and Dominion of Virginia.
By 1624, the Colony and Dominion of Virginia would
cease as a charter colony administered by the Virginia
Company of London as it became a crown colony. The
Pilgrims were a small Protestant-sect based in England




by King Charles II to found Province of Pennsylvania.
The colonies each reported separately to London. There
was a failed effort to group the colonies into the Dominion
of New England, 1686-89.

3.2 Migration
During the 17th century, an estimated 350,000 English
and Welsh migrants arrived as permanent residents in the
Thirteen Colonies, which in the century after the Acts of
Union 1707, was surpassed in rate and number by Scottish and Irish migrants.[10]

Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt at Yalta in 1945

The Mayflower transported the Pilgrims to the New World in
1620, as depicted in William Halsall’s The Mayflower in Plymouth Sound, 1882.

The period of British settler colonization saw the introduction of liberal administrative, juridical, and market institutions positively associated with socioeconomic
development.[11] At the same time, colonial policy was
also quasi-mercantilist, encouraging trade inside the Empire, and discouraging trade with other powers, and
discouraging the rise of manufacturing in the colonies,
which had been established to increase the trade and
wealth of the mother country. Britain made much greater
profits from the sugar trade of its commercial colonies in
the Caribbean.
The introduction of coercive labor institutions was another feature of the colonial period.[11] All of the Thirteen Colonies were involved in the slave trade. Slaves in
the Middle Colonies and New England Colonies typically
worked as house servants, artisans, laborers and craftsmen. Early on, slaves in the Southern Colonies worked
primarily in agriculture, on farms and plantations growing indigo, rice, cotton, and tobacco for export.
The French and Indian War, fought between 1754 and
1763, was the North American theatre of the Seven
Years’ War. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war
between France and Britain in North America, resulted
in the British acquisition of New France, with it French
Catholic population. As part of the terms dictated in the
Treaty of Paris signed in 1763, the French ceded control
of French Louisiana east of the Mississippi River to the
British, which became known as the Indian Reserve.

and Amsterdam; they sent a group of settlers on the
Mayflower. After drawing up the Mayflower Compact
by which they gave themselves broad powers of selfgovernance, they established the small Plymouth Colony
in 1620. In 1630 the Puritans established the much larger
Massachusetts Bay Colony; they sought to reform the
Church of England by creating a new and more pure
church in the New World.
Other colonies followed in Province of Maine (1622),
Province of Maryland (1632), Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (1636) and Connecticut
Colony (1636). Later came the founding of Province of
Carolina (1663) (divided in 1729 into the Province of
North Carolina and the Province of South Carolina). The
Province of New Hampshire was founded in 1691. Finally came the Province of Georgia in 1732.


See also: Religion in early Virginia and History of the
Religious Society of Friends

The religious ties between the metropole and the colonies
were pronounced. Most of the churches were transplants
from England (or Germany). The Puritans of New England seldom kept in touch with nonconformists in EngThe Province of New York was formed from the con- land. Much closer were the transatlantic relationships
quered Dutch colony of New Netherland. In 1674, the maintained by the Quakers, especially in [12][13]
Province of New Jersey was split off from New York. In
1681 William Penn was awarded a royal charter in 1681 The Anglican Church was officially established in the


Peace treaty


Southern colonies, which meant that local taxes paid the
salary of the minister, the parish had civic responsibilities such as poor relief, and the local gentry controlled the
parish. The church was disestablished during the American Revolution. The Anglicans in America were controlled by the Bishop of London, and there was a long
debate over whether to establish an Anglican bishop in
America. The other Protestants blocked any appointment. After the Revolution the newly formed Episcopal
Church selected its own bishop and kept its distance from


British Parliament earlier imposed a series of taxes such
as the Stamp Act of 1765 and later on, the Tea Act of
1773, of which an angry mob of colonists protested about
in the Boston Tea Party by dumping chests of tea into
Boston Harbor. The British Parliament responded to the
defiance of the colonists by passing what the colonials
called the Intolerable Acts in 1774. This course of events
ultimately triggered the first shots fired in the Battles of
Lexington and Concord in 1775 and effectively, the beginning of the American War of Independence itself. A
British victory at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775
would agitate tensions even further. While the goal of
Frequencies of English ancestry, at the 2000 U.S. attaining independence was sought by a majority known
as Patriots, a minority known as Loyalists wished to reCensus
main as British subjects indefinitely. However, when the
Frequencies of Scots ancestry, at the 2000 U.S. Cen- Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia
in May 1775, deliberations conducted by notable figures
such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John HanFrequencies of Scots-Irish ancestry, at the 2000 U.S. cock, Samuel Adams, and John Adams would eventually
come to the conclusion of seeking full independence from
Frequencies of Welsh ancestry, at the 2000 U.S. the mother country. Thus, the Declaration of Independence, unanimously ratified on July 4, 1776, was a radiCensus
cal and decisive break. The United States of America became the first colony in the world to successfully achieve
independence in the modern era.
American Revolution

In early 1775 the Patriots forced all the British officials
and soldiers out of the new nation. However, the British
returned in force in August 1776, and captured New York
City, which became their base until the war finally ended
in 1783. The British, using their powerful navy, could
capture major ports, but 90% of the Americans lived in
rural areas where they had full control. After the Patriots captured a British invasion force moving down from
Canada in the Saratoga campaign of 1777, France entered the war as an ally of the US, and added the Netherlands and Spain as French allies. Britain lost naval superiority and had no major allies and few friends in Europe. The British strategy then was refocused on the
South, where they expected large numbers of Loyalists
John Trumbull’s painting depicting The Death of General War- would fight alongside the redcoats. Far fewer Loyalists
ren at the Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775.
took up arms than Britain needed; royal efforts to control the countryside in the South failed. When the British
See also: American Revolution and American Revolu- army tried to return to New York, its rescue fleet was
tionary War
turned back by the French fleet and its army was captured by combined French-American forces under GenThe Thirteen Colonies gradually began to experience eral George Washington at the Siege of Yorktown in Ocmore limited self-government.[15] Additionally, British tober 1781. That effectively ended the fighting.
mercantilist policies became more stringent, benefiting
the mother country which resulted in trade restrictions,
thereby limiting the growth of the colonial economy and 3.5 Peace treaty
artificially constraining colonial merchants’ earning powar in 1783 on terms quite
tential. Prefaced by debt accrued during the French and The Treaty of Paris ended the
Indian War of which the American Colonies were expected to help repay, tensions escalated from 1765 to The key episodes came in September, 1782, when the
1775 over issues of taxation without representation and French Foreign Minister Vergennes proposed a solution
control by King George III. Stemming from the Boston that was strongly opposed by his ally the United States.
Massacre when British Redcoats opened fire on civilians France was exhausted by the war, and everyone wanted
in 1770, rebellion consumed the outraged colonists. The peace except Spain, which insisted on continuing the war



until it captured Gibraltar from the British. Vergennes 3.7
came up with the deal that Spain would accept instead of
Gibraltar. The United States would gain its independence
but be confined to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain would take the area north of the Ohio River.
In the area south of that would be set up an independent Indian state under Spanish control. It would be an
Indian barrier state. The Americans realized that French
friendship was worthless during these negotiations: they
could get a better deal directly from London. John Jay
promptly told the British that he was willing to negotiate directly with them, cutting off France and Spain. The
British Prime Minister Lord Shelburne agreed. He was
in full charge of the British negotiations and he now saw
a chance to split the United States away from France and
make the new country of valuable economic partner.[17]
The western terms were that the United States would
gain all of the area east of the Mississippi River, north
of Florida, and south of Canada. The northern boundary would be almost the same as today.[18] The United
States would gain fishing rights off Canadian coasts, and
agreed to allow British merchants and Loyalists to try to
recover their property. It was a highly favorable treaty
for the United States, and deliberately so from the British
point of view. Prime Minister Shelburne foresaw highly
profitable two-way trade between Britain and the rapidly
growing United States, as indeed came to pass.[19]



1783–1807: Role of Jay Treaty

End of the Revolution
privately printed pamphlet containing the text of the Jay Treaty

The treaty was finally ratified in 1784. The British evacuated their soldiers and civilians in New York, Charleston
and Savannah in late 1783. Over 80 percent of the
half-million Loyalists remained in the United States and
became American citizens. The others mostly went to
Canada, and referred to themselves as the United Empire Loyalists. Merchants and men of affairs often went
to Britain to reestablish their business connections.[20][21]
Rich southern Loyalists, taking their slaves with them,
typically headed to plantations in the West Indies. The
British also took away about 3000 free blacks, former
slaves would fought the British army; They went to Nova
Scotia. Many found it inhospitable and went to Sierra
Leone, the British colony in Africa.[22]
The new nation gained control of nearly all the land east
of the Mississippi and south of the St. Lawrence River
and the Great Lakes. However the British colonies of
East and West Florida, were given to Spain as its reward.
The Native American tribes allied with Britain were major losers; the British ignored them at the Peace conference, and most came under American control unless they
moved to Canada or to Spanish territory. However the
British kept forts in the American Midwest (especially in
Michigan and Wisconsin), where they supplied weapons
to Indian tribes.[23]

Trade resumed between the two nations when the war
ended. The British allowed all exports to America but
forbade some American food exports to its colonies in
the West Indies. British exports reached £3.7 million,
compared to imports of only £750,000. The imbalance
caused a shortage of gold in the US.
In 1785, John Adams became the first American plenipotentiary minister, now known as an ambassador, to the
Court of St James’s. King George III received him graciously. In 1791, Great Britain sent its first diplomatic
envoy, George Hammond, to the United States.
When Great Britain and France went to war in 1793, relations between the United States and Great Britain also
verged on war. Tensions were subdued when the Jay
Treaty was signed in 1794, which established a decade
of peace and prosperous trade relations.[24] The historian
Marshall Smelser argues that the treaty effectively postponed war with Britain, or at least postponed it until the
United States was strong enough to handle it.[25]
Bradford Perkins argued that the treaty was the first to
establish a special relationship between Britain and the
United States, with a second installment under Lord Salisbury. In his view, the treaty worked for ten years to


War of 1812


secure peace between Britain and America: “The decade 3.8 War of 1812
may be characterized as the period of “The First Rapprochement.” As Perkins concludes,
See also: War of 1812 and Origins of the War of 1812
The United States imposed a trade embargo, namely
“For about ten years there was peace on the
frontier, joint recognition of the value of commercial intercourse, and even, by comparison
with both preceding and succeeding epochs,
a muting of strife over ship seizures and impressment. Two controversies with France…
pushed the English-speaking powers even more
closely together.”[26]
Starting at swords’ point in 1794, the Jay treaty reversed
the tensions, Perkins concludes: “Through a decade
of world war and peace, successive governments on
both sides of the Atlantic were able to bring about and
preserve a cordiality which often approached genuine
An artist’s rendering of the bombardment at the Battle of Balti-

Historian Joseph Ellis finds the terms of the treaty “one- more in 1814, which inspired Francis Scott Key to write the lyrics
sided in Britain’s favor”, but asserts a consensus of histo- of The Star-Spangled Banner, the national anthem of the United
rians agrees that it was
“a shrewd bargain for the United States. It
bet, in effect, on England rather than France as
the hegemonic European power of the future,
which proved prophetic. It recognized the massive dependence of the American economy on
trade with England. In a sense it was a precocious preview of the Monroe Doctrine (1823),
for it linked American security and economic
development to the British fleet, which provided a protective shield of incalculable value
throughout the nineteenth century. Mostly, it
postponed war with England until America was
economically and politically more capable of
fighting one.”[28]

the Embargo Act of 1807, in retaliation for Britain’s
blockade of France, which involved the visit and search
of neutral merchantmen, and resulted in the suppression of Franco-United States trade for the duration of
the Napoleonic Wars.[29] The Royal Navy also boarded
American ships and impressed sailors suspected of being
British deserters.[30] Western expansion into the American Midwest (Ohio to Wisconsin) was hindered by Indian
tribes given munitions and support by British agents. Indeed, Britain’s goal was the creation of an independent
Indian state to block American expansion.[31]

The international slave trade was suppressed after Great
Britain passed the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act in
1807, and the United States passed a similar law in the
same year.

promised an independent Indian state would be created
in American territory. Repeated American invasions of
Canada were fiascoes, because of inadequate preparations, very poor generals, and the refusal of militia units to

After diplomacy and the boycott had failed, the issue of
national honour and independence came to the fore.[32]
Brands says, “The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; [AnThe US proclaimed its neutrality in the wars between
drew] Jackson, who still bore scars from the first war
Britain and France (1793–1815), and profited greatly by of independence held that view with special conviction.
selling food, timber and other supplies to both sides.
The approaching conflict was about violations of AmerThomas Jefferson had bitterly opposed the Jay Treaty be- ican rights, but it was also vindication of American
cause he feared it would strengthen anti-republican polit- identity.”[33]
ical enemies. When Jefferson became president in 1801, Finally in June 1812 President James Madison called for
he did not repudiate the treaty. He kept the Federalist war, and overcame the opposition of Northeastern busiminister, Rufus King in London to negotiate a successful ness interests. The American strategy called for a war
resolution to outstanding issues regarding cash payments against British shipping and especially cutting off food
and boundaries. The amity broke down in 1805, as rela- shipments to the British sugar plantations in the West
tions turned increasingly hostile as a prelude to the War Indies. Conquest of Canada was a tactic designed to
of 1812. Jefferson rejected a renewal of the Jay Treaty give the Americans a strong bargaining position.[34] The
in the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty of 1806 as negotiated by main British goal was to defeat France, so until that haphis diplomats and agreed to by London; he never sent it pened in 1814 the war was primarily defensive. To enlist
to the Senate.
allies among the Indians, led by Tecumseh, the British



leave their home grounds. However the Americans took
control of Lake Erie in 1813 and destroyed the power
of the Indian allies of the British in the Northwest and
Southeast. The British invasion of the Chesapeake Bay in
1814 culminated in the “Burning of Washington”, but the
subsequent British attack on Baltimore was repelled. The
British invasion of New York state in 1814 was defeated
at the Battle of Plattsbugh, and the invasion of Louisiana
that launched before word of a ceasefire had reached General Andrew Jackson was decisively defeated at the Battle
of New Orleans in 1815. Negotiations began in 1814 and
produced the Treaty of Ghent, which restored the status quo ante bellum. No territorial gains were made by
either side, and the British plan to create an Indian nation was abandoned. The United Kingdom retained the
theoretical right of impressment, but stopped impressing
any sailors, while the United States dropped the issue for
good.[35] The US celebrated the outcome as a victorious
“second war of independence.” The British, having finally
defeated Napoleon at Waterloo, celebrated that triumph
and largely forgot the war with America. Tensions between the US and Canada were resolved through diplomacy. The War of 1812 marked the end of a long period
of conflict (1775–1815) and ushered in a new era of peace
between the two nations.


Disputes 1815–60

The Monroe Doctrine, a unilateral response in 1823 to a
British suggestion of a joint declaration, expressed American hostility of further European encroachment in the
Western hemisphere. Nevertheless, the United States
benefited from the common outlook in British policy and
its enforcement by the Royal Navy. In the 1840s several states defaulted on bonds owned by British investors.
London bankers avoided state bonds afterwards, but invested heavily in American railroad bonds.[36]
In several episodes the American general Winfield Scott
proved a sagacious diplomat by tamping down emotions
and reaching acceptable compromises.[37] Scott handled
the Caroline affair in 1837. Rebels from British North
America (now Ontario) fled to New York and used a
small American ship called the Caroline to smuggle supplies into Canada after their rebellion was suppressed. In
late 1837, Canadian militia crossed the border into the
US and burned the ship, leading to diplomatic protests, a
flare-up of Anglophobia, and other incidents.
Tensions on the vague Maine–New Brunswick boundary involved rival teams of lumberjacks in the bloodless
Aroostook War of 1839. There was no shooting but both
sides tried to uphold national honor and gain a few more
miles of timber land. Each side had an old secret map
that apparently showed the other side had the better legal
case, so compromise was easily reached in the Webster–
Ashburton Treaty of 1842, which settled the border in
Maine and Minnesota.[38][39] In 1859, the bloodless Pig
War determined the question of where the border should


The Oregon Country/Columbia District
stretched from 42N to 54 40'N. The most heavily disputed portion
is highlighted

be in relationship to the San Juan Islands and Gulf Islands. But, the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty proved to be an
important step in improving relations.
In 1844-48 the two nations had overlapping claims to
Oregon. The area was largely unsettled making it easy
to end the crisis in 1848 a by compromise that split the
region evenly, with British Columbia to Great Britain, and
Washington, Idaho, and Oregon to America. The US then
turned its attention to Mexico, which threatened war over
the annexation of Texas. Britain tried without success to
moderate the Mexicans, but when the war began it remained neutral. The US gained California, in which the
British had shown only passing interest.[40]

3.10 American Civil War
See also: Britain in the American Civil War and Trent
In the American Civil War a major Confederate goal was
to win recognition from Britain and France, which it expected would lead them to war with the US and enable
the Confederacy to win independence. Because of the
astute American diplomacy, no nation ever recognized
the Confederacy and war with Britain was averted. Nevertheless, there was considerable British sentiment in favor of weakening the US by helping the South win.[41] At
the beginning of the war Britain issued a proclamation of
neutrality. The Confederate States of America had assumed all along that Britain would surely enter the war to
protect its vital supply of cotton. This "King Cotton" argument was one reason the Confederates felt confident in
the first place about going to war, but the Southerners had


Venezuelan and Alaska border disputes

never consulted the Europeans and were tardy in sending
diplomats. Even before the fighting began in April 1861
Confederate citizens (acting without government authority) cut off cotton shipments in an effort to exert cotton
diplomacy. It failed because Britain had warehouses filled
with cotton, whose value was soaring; not until 1862 did
shortages become acute.[42]
The Trent Affair in late 1861 nearly caused a war. A
warship of the U.S. Navy stopped the British civilian vessel RMS Trent and took off two Confederate diplomats,
James Murray Mason and John Slidell. Britain prepared
for war and demanded their immediate release. President
Lincoln released the diplomats and the episode ended

sented British and Canadian roles during the Civil War.
After the war American authorities looked the other
way as Irish “Fenians” plotted and even attempted an
invasion of Canada.[46] The Fenians proved a failure
but Irish American politicians, a growing power in the
Democratic Party demanded more independence for Ireland and made anti-British rhetoric—called “twisting the
lion’s tail”—a staple of election campaign appeals to the
Irish vote.[47]
Britain persisted in its free trade policy even as its major rivals, the US and Germany, turned to high tariffs (as
did Canada). American heavy industry grew faster than
Britain, and by the 1890s was crowding British machinery and other products out of the world market.[48] London, however, remained the world’s financial center, even
as much of its investment was directed toward American
railways. The Americans remained far behind the British
in international shipping and insurance.[49]

Britain realized that any recognition of an independent
Confederacy would be treated as an act of war against the
United States. The British economy was heavily reliant
on trade with the United States, most notably cheap grain
imports which in the event of war, would be cut off by the The American “invasion” of the British home market
Americans. Indeed, the Americans would launch all-out demanded a response.[50] Tariffs, although increasingly
naval war against the entire British merchant fleet.
under consideration, were not imposed until the 1930s.
Therefore, British businessmen were obliged to lose their
Despite outrage and intense American protests, London
allowed the British-built CSS Alabama to leave port and market or else rethink and modernize their operations.
The boot and shoe industry faced increasing imports of
become a commerce raider under the naval flag of the
Confederacy. The war ended in 1865; arbitration settled American footwear; Americans took over the market for
shoe machinery. British companies realized they had to
the issue in 1871, with a payment of $15.5 million in gold
meet the competition so they re-examined their tradifor the damages caused.[44]
tional methods of work, labor utilization, and industrial
In January 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Procla- relations, and to rethink how to market footwear in terms
mation, which was strongly supported by liberal elements of the demand for fashion.[51]
in Britain. However the British government predicted
it would create a race war and that intervention might
be required on humanitarian grounds. There was no 3.12 Venezuelan and Alaska border disrace war, however, and the declining capabilities of the
Confederacy—such as loss of major ports and rivers—
made its likelihood of success smaller and smaller.[45]
The Venezuela Crisis of 1895 broke out when Britain and
Venezuela disputed the boundary between the nation of
Venezuela and British Guiana, a British colony. Presi3.11 Late 19th century
dent Grover Cleveland and Secretary of State Richard Olney demanded international arbitration.[52] The tribunal
in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to
British Guiana.[53] By standing with a Latin American nation against the encroachment of the British Empire, the
US improved relations with the Latin Americans, and the
cordial manner of the procedure improved diplomatic relations with Britain.[54][55]
The Olney-Pauncefote Treaty of 1897 was a proposed
treaty between the United States and Britain in 1897 that
required arbitration of major disputes. Despite wide public and elite support, the treaty was rejected by the U.S.
Senate, which was jealous of its prerogatives, and never
went into effect.[56]
Arbitration was used to settle the dispute over the boundary between Alaska and Canada, but the Canadians felt
betrayed by the result. The Alaska Purchase of 1867
drew the boundary between Canada and Alaska in amRelations were chilly during the 1860s as Americans re- biguous fashion. With the gold rush into the Yukon in
President Cleveland twisting the tail of the British Lion as Americans cheer in the Venezuela Crisis of 1895; cartoon in Puck by
J.S. Pughe




and a territorial acquisition of Cuba by the United States
might harm British trade and commerce interests within
its own imperial possessions in the West Indies. However, after the United States made genuine assurances
that it would grant Cuba’s independence (which eventually occurred in 1902 under the terms dictated in the Platt
Amendment), the British abandoned this policy and ultimately sided with the United States unlike most other
European powers who supported Spain. In return the US
government supported Britain during the Boer War, although many Americans favored the Boers.[59]
Victory in the Spanish–American War had given the
United States its own rising empire. This new status
was demonstrated during 1900–01, when the US and
Britain, as part of the Eight-Nation Alliance, suppressed
the Boxer Rebellion and maintain foreign Concessions
(colonies) in Qing Dynasty China.
In 1907–09, President Theodore Roosevelt sent the
"Great White Fleet" on an international tour, to demonstrate the power projection of the United States’ bluewater navy, which had become second only to the Royal
Navy in size and firepower.[60][61]

This 1898 depiction of the Great Rapprochement shows Uncle
Sam embracing John Bull, while Columbia and Britannia sit together and hold hands.

3.14 World War I

1898, miners had to enter through Alaska and Canada
wanted the boundary redrawn to obtain its own seaport.
Canada rejected the American offer of a long-term lease
on an American port. The issue went to arbitration and
the Alaska boundary dispute was finally resolved by an
arbitration in 1903. The decision favoured the US when
the British judge sided with the three American judges
against the two Canadian judges on the arbitration panel.
Canadian public opinion was outraged that their interests were sacrificed by London for the benefit of BritishAmerican harmony.[57]

3.13 The Great Rapprochement
The Great Rapprochement is a term that was used to
specifically describe the convergence of social and political objectives between the United Kingdom and the
United States from 1895 until World War I began in 1914.
The large Irish Catholic element in the US provided a major base for demands for Irish independence, and occasioned anti-British rhetoric, especially at election time.[58]

An American doughboy receiving an award from King George

Main article: American entry into World War I
The United States had a policy of strict neutrality. The
United States was willing to export any product to any
country. Germany could not import anything due to the
British blockade, so the American trade was with the Allies. It was financed by the sale of American bonds and
stocks owned by the British. When that was exhausted the
British borrowed heavily from New York banks. When
that credit ran dry in late 1916, a financial crisis was at
hand for Britain.[62]

The most notable sign of improving relations during the
Great Rapprochement was Britain’s actions during the
Spanish–American War. With the onslaught of war beginning in 1898, the British had an initial policy of supporting the Spanish Empire and its colonial rule over
Cuba since the perceived threat of American occupation American public opinion moved steadily against Ger-


World War II


many, especially in the wake of the Belgian atrocities in
1914 and the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915. The
large German American and Irish Catholic element called
for staying out of the war, but the German Americans
were increasingly marginalized. The Germans renewed
unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917 knowing it would
lead to war with the US. Germany’s invitation to Mexico
to join together in war against the US in the Zimmermann
Telegram was the last straw, and the US declared war in
April 1917. The Americans planned to send money, food
and munitions, but it soon became clear that millions of
soldiers would be needed to decide the war on the Western Front.[63]

many, which in turn paid reparations to Britain, which
in turn paid off its loans from the US government. In
1931 all German payments ended, and in 1932 Britain
suspended its payments to the US. The debt was finally
repaid after 1945.[68]

Although Woodrow Wilson had wanted to wage war
for the sake of humanity, the negotiations over the
Treaty of Versailles underlined in his Fourteen Points
for Peace made it plainly clear that his diplomatic position had weakened with victory. The borders of Europe
were redrawn on the basis of national self-determination,
with the exception of Germany under the newly formed
Weimar Republic. Financial reparations were imposed
on the Germans, despite British reservations and American protests, largely because of France’s desire for punitive peace[65] and, in what many at the time deemed revenge, for previous conflicts with Germany in the 19th

The overall world total of all trade plunged by over twothirds, while trade between the US and Britain shrank
from $848 million in 1929 to $288 million in 1932, a
decline of almost two-thirds (66%).[70]

The US sponsored a successful Washington Naval Conference in 1922 that largely ended the naval arms race
for a decade. World War I marked the end of the
Royal Navy's superiority, an eclipse acknowledged in
the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, when the United
States and Britain agreed to equal tonnage quotas on warships. By 1932, the 1922 treaty was not renewed and
Britain, Japan and the US were again in a naval race.[67]

3.16 World War II

The US refused to join the League of Nations, but its
absence made little difference to British policy. While
the United States participated in functional bodies of the
League —to the satisfaction of Britain— it was a delicate
issue linking the US to the League in public. Thus, major conferences, especially the Washington Conference
of 1922 occurred outside League auspices. The US refused to send official delegates to League committees,
The US sent two million soldiers to Europe under the instead sending unofficial “observers.”
command of General John J. Pershing, with more on During the Great Depression, the United States was prethe way as the war ended.[64] Many of the Allied forces occupied with its own internal affairs and economic rewere skeptical of the competence of the American Ex- covery, espousing an isolationist policy. When the US
peditionary Force, which in 1917 was severely lacking in raised tariffs in 1930, the British retaliated by raising
training and experience. By summer 1918, the American their tariffs against outside countries (such as the US)
doughboys were arriving at 10,000 a day, as the German while giving special trade preferences inside the Comforces were shrinking because they had run out of man- monwealth. The US demanded these special trade prefpower.
erences be ended in 1946 in exchange for a large loan.[69]

When Britain in 1933 called a worldwide London Economic Conference to help resolve the depression, President Franklin D. Roosevelt killed it by refusing to

Tensions over the Irish question faded with the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922. The American Irish
had achieved their goal, and in 1938 its leader Joseph
P. Kennedy became ambassador to the Court of St.
James’s. He moved in high London society and his daughter married into the aristocracy. Kennedy supported the
3.15 Inter-war years
Neville Chamberlain policy of appeasement toward Germany, and when the war began he advised Washington
By 1921 a cardinal principle of British foreign-policy was that prospects for Britain’s survival were bleak. When
to “cultivate the closest relations with the United States.” Winston Churchill came to power in 1940, Kennedy lost
As a result, Britain decided not to renew its military al- all his influence in London and Washington.[72][73]
liance with Japan, which was becoming a major rival to
the United States in the Pacific.[66]

In the 1920s, bilateral relations were generally friendly.
In 1923 London renegotiated its ₤978 million war debt
to the U.S. Treasury by promising regular payments of
₤34 million for ten years then ₤40 million pounds for 52
years. The idea was for the US to loan money to Ger-

See also: Diplomatic history of World War II and
Though much of the American people were sympathetic
to Britain during the war with Nazi Germany, there was
widespread opposition to possible American intervention
in European affairs. This was put into law in a series of
Neutrality Acts which were ratified by the United States
Congress in 1935, 1936, and 1937 respectively. However, President Roosevelt’s policy of cash-and-carry still
allowed Britain and France to order munitions from the

United States and carry them home.



3.16.1 India
Serious tension erupted over American demands that
India be given independence, a proposition Churchill vehemently rejected. For years Roosevelt had encouraged
Britain’s disengagement from India. The American position was based on principled opposition to colonialism,
practical concern for the outcome of the war, and the
expectation of a large American role in a post-colonial
era. However, in 1942 when the Congress Party launched
a Quit India movement, the British authorities immediately arrested tens of thousands of activists (including
Gandhi). Meanwhile, India became the main American
staging base for aid to China. Churchill threatened to resign if Roosevelt pushed too hard, so Roosevelt backed

3.17 Cold War
Roosevelt and Churchill drafted the Atlantic Charter in August

Churchill, who had long warned against Germany and
demanded rearmament, became prime minister after
Chamberlain’s policy of appeasement had totally collapsed and Britain was unable to reverse the German invasion of Norway in April 1940. After the fall of France in
June 1940, Roosevelt gave Britain and (after June 1941)
the Soviet Union all aid short of war. The Destroyers for
Bases Agreement which was signed in September 1940,
gave the United States a ninety-nine-year rent-free lease
of numerous land and air bases throughout the British
Empire in exchange for the Royal Navy receiving fifty
old destroyers from the United States Navy. Beginning in
March 1941, the United States enacted Lend-Lease in the
form of tanks, fighter airplanes, munitions, bullets, food,
and medical supplies. Britain received $31.4 billion out
of a total of $50.1 billion sent to the Allies.[74][75]

See also: Cold War
In the aftermath of the war Britain faced a financial crisis
whereas the United States was in the midst of an economic boom. The process of de-colonization accelerated
with the independence Britain granted to India, Pakistan
and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1947. The Labour government, which was alarmed at the threat of Communism in
the Balkans, implored the US to take over the British role
in Greece, which led to the Truman Doctrine in 1947,
with financial and military aid to Greece and Turkey as
Britain withdrew from the region.[83]

The US provided financial aid in the Anglo-American
loan of 1946, granting a 50-year loan with a low 2% interest rate starting in 1950. A more permanent solution
was the Marshall Plan of 1948–51, which poured $13 billion into western Europe, of which $3.3 billion went to
Britain to help modernize its infrastructure and business
practices. The aid was a gift and carried requirements
that Britain balance its budget, control tariffs and mainIn December 1941 at the important Arcadia Conference tain adequate currency reserves.[84]
in Washington, top British and American leaders agreed
on strategy. They set up the Combined Chiefs of Staff The need to form a united front against the Soviet threat
to plot and coordinate strategy and operations. Military compelled the US and Britain to cooperate in helping to
form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization with their
cooperation was close and successful.[76]
European allies. NATO is a mutual defense alliance
Technical collaboration was even closer, as the two na- whereby an attack on one member country is deemed an
tions shared secrets and weapons regarding the proximity attack on all members.
fuze and radar, as well as airplane engines, Nazi codes,
The United States had an anti-colonial and antiand the atomic bomb.[77][78][79]
communist stance in its foreign policy throughout the
Millions of American servicemen were based in Britain Cold War. Military forces from the United States and
during the war. Americans were paid five times more the United Kingdom were heavily involved in the Korean
than comparable British servicemen, which led to a cer- War, fighting under a United Nations mandate. A withtain amount of friction with British men and intermar- drawal of military forces occurred when a stalemate was
riage with British women.[80]
implemented in 1953. When the Suez Crisis erupted in
In 1945 Britain sent a portion of the British fleet to assist October 1956, the United States feared a wider war after
the American invasion of Japan in October, which was the Soviet Union threatened to intervene on the Egyptian
cancelled when Japan surrendered in August.
side. Thus the United States applied sustained econo-


Cold War

financial pressure to encourage and ultimately force the
United Kingdom and France end their invasion of Egypt.
British post-war debt was at such an extent that economic
sanctions could have meant a devaluing of sterling. This
was something the UK government intended to avoid at
all costs and when it became clear that the international
sanctions were serious, the British and their French allies withdrew their forces back to pre-war positions. The
following year saw the resignation of Sir Anthony Eden.
Dwight D. Eisenhower’s victory in the American presidential election in 1952 might have been expected to
guarantee a continuance of good United States-United
Kingdom relations, if not a period of even closer collaboration. However, Anglo-American cooperation during Eisenhower’s presidency was troubled, approaching
in 1956 a complete breakdown that represented the lowest point in the relations between the two countries since
the 1920s.

trance. Heath’s final bid benefitted from the more moderate views of Georges Pompidou, De Gaulle’s successor
as President of France, and his own Eurocentric foreign
policy schedule. The Nixon administration viewed this
bid as a pivot away from close ties with the United States
in favor of continental Europe. After Britain’s successful
admittance to the EEC in 1973, Heath confirmed this interpretation by notifying his American counterparts that
the United Kingdom would henceforth be formulating
European policies with other EEC members before discussing them with the United States. Furthermore, Heath
indicated his potential willingness to consider a nuclear
partnership with France and questioned what the United
Kingdom got in return for American use of British military and intelligence facilities worldwide.[90] In return,
Nixon and his Secretary of State Henry Kissinger briefly
cut off the Anglo-American intelligence tap in August
1973.[91] Kissinger then attempted to restore American
influence in Europe with his abortive 1973 “Year of
Europe” policy plan to update the NATO agreements.
Members of the Heath administration, including Heath
himself in later years, regarded this announcement with

Through the US-UK Mutual Defence Agreement signed
in 1958, the United States assisted the United Kingdom
in their own development of a nuclear arsenal. In April
1963, John F. Kennedy and Harold Macmillan signed the
Polaris Sales Agreement to the effect of the United States
agreeing to supply the UGM-27 Polaris ballistic missile In 1973, American and British officials disagreed in their
to the United Kingdom and for use in the Royal Navy’s handling of the Arab-Israeli Yom Kippur War. While
the Nixon administration immediately increased milisubmarine fleet starting in 1968.[85]
tary aid to Israel, Heath maintained British neutrality on
The United States gradually became involved in the the conflict and imposed an October 1973 British arms
Vietnam War in the early 1960s, but received no support embargo on all combatants, which mostly hindered the
this time from the United Kingdom. Anti-Americanism Israelis by preventing them obtaining spares for their
due to the Vietnam War and a lack of American support Centurion tanks. Anglo-American disagreement intenfor France and the United Kingdom over the Suez Crisis sified over Nixon’s unilateral decision to elevate Amerweighed heavily on the minds of many in Europe. This ican forces, stationed at British bases, to DEFCON 3
sentiment extended in the United Kingdom by Harold on October 25 in response to the breakdown of the
Wilson’s refusal to send British troops to Indochina.
United Nations ceasefire.[93] Heath disallowed AmeriEdward Heath and Richard Nixon maintained a close can intelligence gathering, resupplying, or refueling from
relationship throughout their terms in office.[86] Heath British bases in Cyprus, which greatly limited the effec[94]
In redeviated from his predecessors by supporting Nixon’s tive range of American reconnaissance planes.
decision to bomb Hanoi and Haiphong in Vietnam in
April 1972.
Despite this personal affection, AngloAmerican relations deteriorated noticeably during the suggested that the United States should refuse to assist
early 1970s. Throughout his premiership, Heath insisted in the British missile upgrade to the Polaris system.
on using the phrase “natural relationship” instead of “spe- Tensions between the United States and United Kingdom
cial relationship” to refer to Anglo-American relations, relaxed as the second ceasefire took effect. Wilson’s reacknowledging the historical and cultural similarities but turn to power in 1974 helped to return Anglo-American
carefully denying anything special beyond that.[88] Heath relations to normalcy.
was determined to restore a measure of equality to Anglo- On July 23, 1977, officials from the United Kingdom and
American relations that had been increasingly character- the United States renegotiated the previous Bermuda I
ized by American dominance as the power and econ- Agreement, thus signing the Bermuda II Agreement to
omy of the United Kingdom flagged in the post-colonial the effect of only four combined airlines, two from the
United Kingdom and two from the United States, being
Heath’s renewed push for British admittance to the allowed to operate flights from London Heathrow Airport
European Economic Community (EEC) brought new ten- and specified “gateway cities” in the United States. The
sions between the United Kingdom and the United States. Bermuda II Agreement was in effect for nearly 30 years
French President Charles De Gaulle, who believed that until it was eventually replaced by the EU-US Open Skies
British entry would allow undue American influence on Agreement, which was signed on April 30, 2007 and enthe organization, vetoed previous British attempts at en- tering into effect on March 30, 2008.




Muammar Gaddafi’s exportation of state-sponsored terrorism directed towards civilians and American servicemen stationed in West Berlin.
On December 21, 1988, Pan American Worldways’
Flight 103 from London Heathrow Airport to New York’s
John F. Kennedy International Airport exploded over the
town of Lockerbie, Scotland, killing 169 Americans and
40 Britons on board. The motive that is generally attributed to the country of Libya can be traced back to
a series of military confrontations with the United States
Navy that took place in the 1980s in the Gulf of Sidra,
the whole of which Libya claimed as its territorial waters. Despite a guilty verdict announced on January 31,
Ronald Reagan with close ally and personal friend, Margaret
2001 by the Scottish High Court of Justiciary which ruled
Thatcher at Aspen Lodge, Camp David, 1984.
against Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, the alleged bomber on
charges of murder and the conspiracy to commit murder,
Libya had never formally admitted carrying out the 1988
Throughout the 1980s, Margaret Thatcher was strongly
bombing over Scotland until 2003.
supportive of Ronald Reagan’s unwavering stance towards the Soviet Union. Often described as 'political During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, the United States
soulmates’ and a high point in the "Special Relationship", and the United Kingdom throughout the 1980s provided
both President Reagan and Prime Minister Thatcher met arms to the Mujahideen rebels in Afghanistan until the
on numerous occasions throughout their political careers, last troops from the Soviet Union left Afghanistan on
speaking in concert when confronting Soviet Premier February 15, 1989.
Mikhail Gorbachev.
In 1982, the British Government made a request to the
United States, which the Americans agreed upon in principle, to sell the Trident II D5 ballistic missile, associated
equipment, and related system support for use on four
Vanguard class nuclear submarines in the Royal Navy.
The Trident II D5 ballistic missile replaced the United
Kingdom’s previous use of the UGM-27 Polaris ballistic
missile, beginning in the mid-1990s.[85]

3.18 Post-Cold War
See also: Gulf War, Kosovo War and NATO bombing
of Yugoslavia

In the Falklands War, the United States initially tried
to mediate between the United Kingdom and Argentina
in 1982, but ultimately ended up supporting the United
Kingdom’s counter-invasion. The United States Defense Department under Caspar Weinberger, supplied
the British military with equipment as well as logistical

When the United States became the world’s lone superpower after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, new
threats emerged which confronted the United States and
its NATO allies. With military build-up beginning in
August 1990 and the use of force beginning in January
1991, the United States, followed at a distance by Britain,
provided the two largest forces respectively for the coalition army which liberated Kuwait from Saddam Hussein’s
regime during the Persian Gulf War.

In October 1983, the United States and a coalition of
Caribbean nations undertook Operation Urgent Fury, codename for the invasion of the Commonwealth island nation of Grenada. A bloody Marxist-coup had overrun
Grenada and neighboring countries in the region asked
the United States to intervene militarily, which it did successfully despite having made assurances to a deeply resentful British Government.

In 1997, the British Labour Party was elected to office
for the first time in eighteen years. The new prime minister, Tony Blair, and Bill Clinton both used the expression
"Third Way" to describe their centre-left ideologies. In
August 1997, the American people expressed solidarity
with the British people, sharing in their grief and sense
of shock on the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, who
perished in a car crash in Paris, France.

On April 15, 1986, the United States Air Force with elements of naval and marine forces launched Operation El
Dorado Canyon from RAF Fairford, RAF Upper Heyford, RAF Lakenheath, and RAF Mildenhall. Despite
firm opposition from within the Conservative Party, Margaret Thatcher nevertheless gave Ronald Reagan permission to use Royal Air Force stations in the United Kingdom during the bombings of Tripoli and Benghazi in
Libya, a counter-attack by the United States in response to

Throughout 1998 and 1999, the United States and Britain
sent troops to impose peace during the Kosovo War.

3.19 War on Terror and Iraq War
See also: War on Terror, September 11 attacks, 7 July
2005 London bombings and Iraq War


Release of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi


and unwavering stance for the British alliance with the
United States can be summed up in his own words. He
said, “We should remain the closest ally of the US ... not
because they are powerful, but because we share their
values.”[99] The alliance between George W. Bush and
Tony Blair seriously damaged the prime minister’s standing in the eyes of many British citizens.[100] Tony Blair argued it is in the United Kingdom’s interest to “protect and
strengthen the bond” with the United States regardless of
who is in the White House.[101] However, a perception
of one-sided compromising personal and political closeness led to serious discussion of the term “Poodle-ism” in
Tony Blair and George W. Bush seen shaking hands after a press the British media, to describe the "Special Relationship"
conference in the East Room of the White House the on November of the British Government and Prime Minister with the
White House and President.[102]
12, 2004.
All British servicemen were withdrawn with the exception of 400 who remained in Iraq until July 31, 2009.[103]
67 Britons were among the 2,977 victims killed during the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in
New York City, the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and in an open field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, on September 11, 2001, which were orchestrated
by Al-Qaeda. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, there was an enormous outpouring of sympathy
from the United Kingdom for the American people, and
Tony Blair was one of George W. Bush’s strongest international supporters for bringing al-Qaeda and the Taliban
to justice. Indeed, Blair became the most articulate
spokesman. He was the only foreign leader to attend an
emergency joint session of Congress called immediately
after the attacks (and remains the only foreign leader ever
to attend such a session), where he received two standing
ovations from members of Congress.

On June 11, 2009, the British Overseas Territory of
Bermuda accepted four Chinese Uighurs from the United
States’ detainment facility known as Guantanamo Bay detention camp located on the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
in Cuba. At the request of the United States Government, Bermudan officials agreed to host Khaleel Mamut,
Hozaifa Parhat, Salahidin Abdulahat, and Abdullah Abdulqadirakhun as guest workers in Bermuda who seven
years ago, were all captured by Pakistani bounty hunters
during the United States-led invasion of Afghanistan in
October 2001. This decision agreed upon by American
and Bermudan officials drew considerable consternation
and contempt by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
as it was viewed by British officials in London that they
should have been consulted on whether or not the decision to take in four Chinese Uighurs was a security and
The United States declared a War on Terror following foreign issue of which the Bermudian government does
the attacks. British forces participated in NATO’s war in not have delegated responsibility over.[104]
Afghanistan. Blair took the lead (against the opposition
of France, Canada, Germany, China, and Russia) in advocating the invasion of Iraq in 2003. Again Britain was 3.20 Release of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi
second only to the US in sending forces to Iraq. Both sides
wound down after 2009, and withdrew their last troops See also: Release of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi
in 2011. President Bush and Prime Minister Blair provided sustained mutual political and diplomatic support
and won votes in Congress and parliament against their On August 20, 2009, The Scottish government headed
by Alex Salmond announced that it would release
critics at home.[97]
Abdelbaset al-Megrahi on medical grounds. He was the
The July 7, 2005 London bombings emphasized the dif- only person convicted of the terrorist plot which killed
ference in the nature of the terrorist threat to both na- 169 Americans and 40 Britons on Pan American Worldtions. The United States concentrated primarily on global ways’ Flight 103 over the town of Lockerbie, Scotland on
enemies, like the al-Qaeda network and other Islamic ex- December 21, 1988. He was sentenced to life in prison in
tremists from the Middle East. The London bombings 2001, but was released after being diagnosed with termiwere carried out by homegrown extremist Muslims, and nal cancer, with around three months to live. Americans
it emphasized the United Kingdom’s threat from the rad- said the decision was uncompassionate and insensitive to
icalization of its own people.
the memory of the victims of the 1988 Lockerbie bombBy 2007, support amongst the British public for the Iraq ing. President Barack Obama said that the decision was
war had plummeted.[98] Despite Tony Blair’s historically “highly objectionable.”[105] However, Louis Susman, the
low approval ratings with the British people, mainly due United States Ambassador said that although the decision
to allegations of faulty government intelligence of Iraq made by Scotland to release Abdelbaset al-Megrahi was
possessing weapons of mass destruction, his unapologetic seen by the United States as extremely regrettable, rela-

tions with the United Kingdom would remain fully intact
and strong.[106] The British government led by Gordon
Brown was not involved in the release and Gordon Brown
stated at a press conference that they had played 'no role'
in the decision.[107] Abdelbaset al-Megrahi died May 20,
2012 at the age of 60.

3.21 Deepwater Horizon oil spill
In April 2010, the explosion, sinking and resultant oil
spill from the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig led to diplomatic friction and populist anti-British sentiment, even
though the rig was owned and operated by the Swiss
company Transocean and the cement work carried out
by the US company Halliburton . Commentators referred to “British Petroleum” even though the company
had been known as “BP” since 1998.[108][109] UK politicians expressed concerns about anti-British rhetoric in
the US.[110][111] BP’s CEO Tony Hayward was called
“the most hated man in America”.[112] Conversely, the
widespread public demonisation of BP and the effects
on the company and its image, coupled with Obama’s
statements with regard to BP caused a degree of antiAmerican sentiment in the UK. This was particularly evidenced by the comments of the Business Secretary Vince
Cable, who said that “It’s clear that some of the rhetoric
in the US is extreme and unhelpful”,[113] for reasons of
British pension funds, loss of revenues for the exchequer
and the adverse effect such the rhetoric was having on the
share price of one of the UK’s largest companies. The
meeting between Barack Obama and David Cameron in
July somewhat helped strained diplomatic relations, and
President Obama stated that there lies a “truly special relations” between the two countries. The degree to which
anti-British or anti-American hostilities continue to exist,
remains to be seen.



important bilateral relationship” in the world.[3] United
States Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton paid
tribute to the relationship in February 2009 by saying, “it
stands the test of time”.[114]
On March 3, 2009, Gordon Brown made his first visit
to the Obama White House. During his visit, he presented the president a gift in the form of a pen holder
carved from HMS Gannet, which served anti-slavery missions off the coast of Africa. Barack Obama’s gift to the
prime minister was a box of 25 DVDs with movies including Star Wars and E.T. The wife of the prime minister, Sarah Brown, gave the Obama daughters, Sasha and
Malia, two dresses from British clothing retailer Topshop,
and a few unpublished books that have not reached the
United States. Michelle Obama gave the prime minister’s
sons two Marine One helicopter toys.[115] During this visit
to the United States, Gordon Brown made an address to
a joint session of the United States Congress, a privilege
rarely accorded to foreign heads of government.
In March 2009, a Gallup poll of Americans showed 36%
identified Britain as their country’s “most valuable ally”,
followed by Canada, Japan, Israel, and Germany rounding out the top five.[116] The poll also indicated that 89%
of Americans view the United Kingdom favorably, second only to Canada with 90%.[116] According to the Pew
Research Center, a global survey conducted in July 2009
revealed that 70% of Britons who responded had a favorable view of the United States.[117]

3.22 Present status

U.S. President Barack Obama talks with British Prime Minister
David Cameron on the South Lawn of the White House, July 20,

In February 2011, The Daily Telegraph, based on evidence from Wikileaks, reported that the United States
had tendered sensitive information about the British Trident nuclear arsenal (whose missile delivery systems are
manufactured and maintained in the United States) to the
Russian Federation as part of a deal to encourage Russia to ratify the New START Treaty. Professor Malcolm
Queen Elizabeth II welcomed President Barack Obama and his Chalmers of the Royal United Services Institute for Dewife Michelle Obama to Buckingham Palace on April 1, 2009.
fence and Security Studies speculated that serial numbers
could undermine Britain’s non-verification policy by proPresent British policy is that the relationship with the viding Russia “with another data point to gauge the size
United States represents the United Kingdom’s “most of the British arsenal”.[118]

On May 25, 2011, during his official visit to the UK, President Barack Obama reaffirmed the relationship between
the United Kingdom and the United States of America in
an address to Parliament at Westminster Hall. Amongst
other points, Obama stated: “I've come here today to
reaffirm one of the oldest; one of the strongest alliances
the World has ever known. It’s long been said that the
United States and The United Kingdom share a special

6 Transportation
New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport is
the most popular international destination for people
flying out of London Heathrow Airport. Approximately 2,802,870 people on multiple daily non-stop
flights flew from Heathrow to JFK in 2008.[126] Concorde,
British Airway’s flagship supersonic airliner, began transAtlantic service to Washington Dulles International Airport in the United States on May 24, 1976. The transAtlantic route between London’s Heathrow and New
York’s JFK in under 3½ hours, had its first operational
flight between the two hubs on October 19, 1977 and the
last being on October 23, 2003.[127]

In the final days before the Scottish independence referendum in September 2014, President Barack Obama announced in public the vested interest of the United States
of America in enjoying the continued partnership with a
'strong and united' UK which he described as “one of the
closest allies we will ever have.”[120]
Cunard Line, a British shipping company which is owned
jointly by a British-American-Panamanian parent company, Carnival Corporation, provides seasonal trans4 Trade, investment and the econ- Atlantic crossings aboard the RMS Queen Mary 2 and the
MS Queen Victoria between Southampton and New York

The United States accounts for the United Kingdom’s
largest single export market, buying $57 billion worth of
7 State and official visits
British goods in 2007.[121] Total trade of imports and exports between the United Kingdom and the United States
See also: United States presidential visits to the United
amounted to the sum of $107.2 billion in 2007.[122]
The United States and the United Kingdom share the
world’s largest foreign direct investment partnership. In
2005, American direct investment in the United King- Reciprocal state and official visits have been carried out
dom totaled $324 billion while British direct investment over the years by four Presidents of the United States as
well as two British monarchs. Throughout her lifetime,
in the United States totaled $282 billion.[123]
Queen Elizabeth II has met a total of eleven presidents
In a press conference that made several references to the (Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Nixon, Ford, Carter,
special relationship, US Secretary of State John Kerry, in Reagan, Bush Sr., Clinton, Bush Jr, and Obama), with
London with UK Foreign Secretary William Hague on 9 the notable exception of Lyndon B. Johnson. She also
September 2013, said
met ex-President Herbert Hoover in 1957.[129] In addition, the Queen made three private visits in 1984, 1985,
and 1991 to see stallion stations and stud farms in the US
“We are not only each other’s largest instate of Kentucky.[130]
vestors in each of our countries, one to the
other, but the fact is that every day almost
one million people go to work in America for
British companies that are in the United States,
8 Diplomacy
just as more than one million people go to
work here in Great Britain for American comSee also: United States Ambassador to the United Kingpanies that are here. So we are enormously
dom and List of Ambassadors of the United Kingdom to
tied together, obviously. And we are committhe
United States
ted to making both the U.S.-UK and the U.S.EU relationships even stronger drivers of our

9 Common memberships


9.1 Strategic Alliance Cyber Crime Working Group
More than 4.5 million Britons visit the United States every year, spending approximately $14 billion. Around 3
million Americans visit the United Kingdom every year, The Strategic Alliance Cyber Crime Working Group is an
spending approximately $10 billion.[125]
initiative by Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United



Elizabeth II and the 38th President of the United States, Gerald
Ford, dancing in the East Room at the White House during Her
Majesty’s state visit to commemorate the United States Bicentennial in 1976.

Elizabeth II and the 43rd President of the United States, George
W. Bush, share a toast during a 2007 state dinner held at the
White House in celebration of British-American relations.

Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh leaving
National Presbyterian Church after attending a worship service
with the 34th President of the United States, Dwight Eisenhower
and First Lady Mamie Eisenhower during their state visit to the
United States in 1957.

Elizabeth II and the 40th President of the United States, Ronald
Reagan, riding on horseback in the grounds of Windsor Great
Park during President Reagan’s 1982 official visit to the United

Kingdom and headed by the United States as a “formal
partnership between these nations dedicated to tackling
larger global crime issues, particularly organized crime.”
The cooperation consists of “five countries from three
continents banding together to fight cyber crime in a syn- Map showing member countries of the Strategic Alliance Cyber
ergistic way by sharing intelligence, swapping tools and Crime Working Group and their respective lead agencies.
best practices, and strengthening and even synchronizing
their respective laws.”[137]
9.2 UKUSA Community
Within this initiative, there is increased information sharing between the United Kingdom’s Serious Organised
Crime Agency and the United States’ Federal Bureau of
Investigation on matters relating to serious fraud or cyber

The UK-USA Security Agreement is an alliance of
five English-speaking countries; Australia, Canada, New
Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, for
the sole purpose of sharing intelligence. The precursor to

this agreement is essentially an extension of the historic
BRUSA Agreement which was signed in 1943. In association with the ECHELON system, all five nations are assigned to intelligence collection and analysis from different parts of the world. For example, the United Kingdom
hunts for communications in Europe, Africa, and Russia
west of the Ural Mountains whereas the United States has
responsibility for gathering intelligence in Latin America,
Asia, Asiatic Russia, and northern mainland China.[138]


Sister-Twinning cities


England and the United States


Scotland and the United States


Wales and the United States

The Resolute desk as seen in the Oval Office at the White
House during the Carter Administration, was hand-crafted from
barque-timbers of the decommissioned HMS Resolute, and then
presented by Queen Victoria as a gift to the United States on
November 23, 1880.

The American legal systems is largely based on English common law. The American system of local
government is rooted in English precedents, such as

Machynlleth and
Belleville, Michigan
the offices of county courts and sheriffs. Although
the US, unlike Britain, remains highly religious,[140] the

Newport, Pembrokeshire, and
largest Protestant denominations emerged from British
churches brought across the Atlantic, such as the Baptists,
Methodists, Congregationalists and Episcopalians.

Brecon and


Saline, Michigan

Northern Ireland and the United Britain and the United States practice what is commonly
referred to as an Anglo-Saxon economy in which levels

• Larne and

Clover, South Carolina

• Newtownabbey and


Gilbert, Arizona

Friendship links

Liverpool and

Memphis, Tennessee

Liverpool and

New Orleans

Newcastle upon Tyne and

Wellingborough and



of regulation and taxes are low, and government provides
a low to medium level of social services in return.[141]
Independence Day, July 4, is a national celebration
which commemorates the July 4, 1776 adoption of the
Declaration of Independence from the British Empire.
American defiance of Britain is expressed in the American national anthem, The Star Spangled Banner, written
during the War of 1812 to the tune of a British celebratory song as the Americans beat off a British attack on

It is estimated that between 40,234,652 and 72,065,000
Little Rock, Americans today have British Ancestry, making
up between 13% and 23.3% of the US population
In the 1980 US Census,
Willingboro, New respectively.
61,311,449 Americans reported British Ancestry reaching 32.56% of the US population at the time which, even
today, would make them the largest ancestry group in
the United States.[145]

See also: Anglo-America and British-American
The United States shares with Britain many threads of
cultural heritage.
Since English is the language of both the British and the
Americans, both nations belong to the English-speaking
world. However, the common language does come with
differences in spelling, pronunciation, and the meaning of

12 Popular culture
12.1 Literature
Literature is transferred across the Atlantic Ocean, as evidenced by, the appeal of British authors such as William
Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, J. R. R. Tolkien, Jackie



Collins, and J. K. Rowling in the United States, and
American authors such as Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mark
Twain, Ernest Hemingway, Stephen King and Dan Brown
in Britain. Henry James moved to Britain and was well
known in both countries, as was T. S. Eliot. Eliot moved
to England in 1914 and became a British subject in 1927.
He was a dominant figure in literary criticism and greatly
influenced the Modern period of British literature.[146]


Print journalism

British Sunday broadsheet newspaper The Observer includes a condensed copy of The New York Times.[147]



There is much crossover appeal in the modern entertainment culture of the United Kingdom and the United
States. For example, Hollywood blockbuster movies
made by Steven Spielberg and George Lucas have had a
large effect on British audiences in the United Kingdom,
while the James Bond and Harry Potter series of films
have attracted high interest in the United States. Also, the
animated films of Walt Disney have continued to make
an indelible mark and impression on British audiences,
young and old, for almost 100 years. Films by Alfred
Hitchcock continuously make a lasting impact on a loyal
fan base in the United States, as Alfred Hitchcock himself
influenced notable American film makers such as John
Carpenter, in the horror and slasher film genres.


ket in more recent years are The Office, Who Wants to
Be a Millionaire?, Strictly Come Dancing (Dancing with
the Stars), Top Gear, Pop Idol (American Idol) and The X
Factor. Some American television shows re-created for
the British market in more recent years include The Apprentice and Deal or No Deal. Popular American television shows that are currently popular in the United Kingdom include The Simpsons, Modern Family, South Park,
Scrubs, Family Guy, Friends, The Big Bang Theory and
the CSI: Crime Scene Investigation series.
The BBC airs two networks in the United States, BBC
America and BBC World. The American network PBS
collaborates with the BBC and rebroadcasts British television shows in the United States such as Monty Python’s
Flying Circus, Keeping Up Appearances, Doctor Who,
Nova, and Masterpiece Theatre. The BBC also frequently
collaborates with American network HBO, showing recent American mini-series in the United Kingdom such
as Rome, John Adams, Band of Brothers, and The Gathering Storm. Likewise, the American network Discovery
Channel has partnered with the BBC by televising recent
British mini-series in the United States such as Planet
Earth and The Blue Planet, the latter popularly known
as The Blue Planet: Seas of Life in the American format. The United States’ public affairs channel C-SPAN,
broadcasts Prime Minister’s Questions every Sunday.

On some British digital television platforms, it is also possible to watch American television channels direct from
the United Kingdom, such as Fox News Channel, as well
as American television channels tailored for British audiences such as CNBC Europe, CNN International, ESPN
Comedy Central, and Fox. The Super Bowl, the
Production of films are often shared between the two naNational
Football League’s championship tournament of
tions, whether it be a concentrated use of British and
football which occurs every February, has been
American actors or the use of film studios located in Lonbroadcast
the United Kingdom since 1982.[149]
don or Hollywood.



12.6 Music

Broadway theatre in New York City has toured London’s West End theatre over the years, with notable performances such as The Lion King, Grease, Wicked, and
Rent. British productions, such as Mamma Mia! and
several of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musicals, including
Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, Cats
and The Phantom of the Opera have found success on
Broadway. For over 150 years, Shakespeare’s plays have
been overwhelmingly popular with upscale American



Both the United Kingdom and the United States have television shows which are similar, as they are either carried
by the other nations’ networks, or are re-created for distribution in their own nations. Some popular British television shows that were re-created for the American mar-

The arrival of The Beatles in the United States and subsequent
appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 marked the beginning of the “British Invasion.”

See also: British Invasion and Anglo-American music


American artists such as Whitney Houston, Madonna,
Tina Turner, Cher, Michael Jackson, Bing Crosby, Elvis
Presley, Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, Diana Ross, Britney
Spears, Christina Aguilera, Frank Sinatra, Lady Gaga,
Taylor Swift and Beyoncé, are popular in the United
Kingdom. British artists such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones, Sting, The Who, Queen,
Shirley Bassey, Tom Jones, David Bowie, Pink Floyd the
Spice Girls, the Bee Gees, Amy Winehouse, KT Tunstall,
Leona Lewis, Elton John (Elton John recorded "Candle
in the Wind" which, to date, is the best ever selling single worldwide), Coldplay and Adele have achieved much
success in the large American market. Undoubtedly, the
popular music of both nations has had a strong sway on
each other.
In the United Kingdom, many Hollywood films as well
as Broadway musicals are closely associated and identified with the musical scores and soundtracks created
by famous American composers such as George Gershwin, Rodgers and Hammerstein, Henry Mancini, John
Williams, Alan Silvestri, Jerry Goldsmith, and James
The Celtic music of the United Kingdom has had a dynamic effect upon American music.[150] In particular, the
traditional music of the Southern United States is descended from traditional Celtic music and English folk
music of the colonial period, and the musical traditions
of the South eventually gave rise to country music and, to
a lesser extent, American folk.[151]

Churchill and Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery at a NATO meeting, 1951.
• Richard and Patricia Nixon with Harold and Mary
Wilson on the South Lawn at the White House,
• Queen Elizabeth II and Patricia Nixon, 1970.
• Richard Nixon with the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, 1970.
• Gerald and Betty Ford having lunch with Queen
Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
at the White House, 1976.
• Margaret Thatcher and Jimmy Carter seen reading
the inscription on the front of the Resolute Desk in
the Oval Office at the White House, 1979.
• Ronald Reagan addressing the British Parliament,
• Ronald and Nancy Reagan with Queen Elizabeth II
and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh at Rancho del
Cielo, 1983.
• Charles and Diana, the Prince and Princess of Wales
during a photo opportunity with Ronald and Nancy
Reagan at the White House, 1985.
• John Travolta dancing with Diana, Princess of
Wales at the White House, 1985.

The birth of jazz, swing, big band, and especially rock and
roll, all developed and originating in the United States,
had greatly influenced the later development of rock music in the United Kingdom, particularly British rock bands
such as The Beatles and Herman’s Hermits, The Rolling
Stones, while its American precursor, the blues, greatly
influenced British electric rock.[152]

• Margaret Thatcher seen walking with Ronald Reagan at Camp David, 1986.


• Bill Clinton and Tony Blair embracing each other at
a conference in Florence, Italy, 1999.


• Sir Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt
during a secret meeting off the coast of Newfoundland, 1941.
• King George VI and Queen Elizabeth with Eleanor
Roosevelt in London, 1942.
• Anthony Eden greeting Franklin D. Roosevelt at the
Quebec Conference as Eleanor Roosevelt and Sir
Winston Churchill look on, 1943.
• Eleanor Roosevelt, Princess Alice, Countess of
Athlone, and Clementine Churchill at the Second
Quebec Conference, 1944.
• General Dwight D. Eisenhower with Sir Winston

• Ronald and Nancy Reagan with Margaret and
Dennis Thatcher at the beginning of an official dinner at the White House, 1988.
• George H.W. Bush and John Major conducting a
press conference at Camp David, 1992.

• Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and George W.
Bush in the forecourt of Buckingham Palace before
a review of Foot Guards of the Household Division,
• George W. Bush, Laura Bush, Charles, Prince of
Wales, and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall at the
White House during the Waleses’ official visit to the
United States, 2005.
• Queen Elizabeth II reviewing an honour guard during a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South
Lawn of the White House, 2007.
• Gordon Brown and George W. Bush having their
first meeting at Camp David, 2007.



• Tony Blair being awarded the Presidential Medal of
Freedom by George W. Bush, 2009.

• Ellis, Sylvia. Historical Dictionary of AngloAmerican Relations (2009) and text search

• Gordon Brown and Barack Obama, during a photo
opportunity in the Oval Office at the White House
in 2009.

• Foreman, Amanda. A World on Fire: Britain’s Crucial Role in the American Civil War (Random House,
2011), 958 pp.

• The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David
Cameron, and the President of the United States,
Barack Obama, during the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit.

• Geoffrey Wheatcroft, “How the British Nearly
Supported the Confederacy,” New York Times
Sunday Book Review June 30, 2011 online


See also

• Anglophobia
• Timeline of British diplomatic history
• Timeline of United States diplomatic history
• Foreign policy of the United States
• Foreign relations of the United States
• Foreign relations of the United Kingdom
• Transatlantic relations



• Allen; H. C. Great Britain and the United States:
A History of Anglo-American Relations, 1783–1952
• Bartlett, Christopher John. The Special Relationship: A Political History of Anglo-American Relations Since 1945 (1992)
• Burt, Alfred L. The United States, Great Britain, and
British North America from the Revolution to the Establishment of Peace after the War of 1812. (1940),
detailed history by Canadian scholar; online
• Campbell, Charles S. Anglo-American Understanding 1898–1903 (1957)
• John Charmley.
Churchill’s Grand Alliance:
The Anglo-American Special Relationship 1940–57
• Crawford, Martin. The Anglo-American Crisis of the
Mid-Nineteenth Century: The Times and America,
1850–1862 (1987)

• Hollowell; Jonathan. Twentieth-Century AngloAmerican Relations (2001)
• Hitchens, Christopher. Blood, Class and Empire:
The Enduring Anglo-American Relationship (2004)
• Lane, Ann. Strategy, Diplomacy and UK Foreign
Policy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)
• Louis, William Roger; Imperialism at Bay: The
United States and the Decolonization of the British
Empire, 1941–1945 (1978)
• Louis, William Roger, and Hedley Bull. The “Special Relationship": Anglo-American Relations since
1945 (1987)
• Perkins; Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795–1805 (1955)
• Perkins, Bradford. Prologue to war: England and
the United States, 1805–1812 (1961) full text online
• Perkins, Edwin J. Financing Anglo-American trade:
The House of Brown, 1800–1880 (1975)
• Peskin, Lawrence A. “Conspiratorial Anglophobia
and the War of 1812.” Journal of American History
98#3 (2011): 647-669. online
• Reynolds, David. From World War to Cold War:
Churchill, Roosevelt, and the International History of
the 1940s (2007) excerpt and text search
• Shawcross, William. Allies: The U.S., Britain, Europe and the War in Iraq (2004)
• Tuffnell, Stephen. "“Uncle Sam is to be Sacrificed”:
Anglophobia in Late Nineteenth-Century Politics
and Culture.” American Nineteenth Century History
12#1 (2011): 77-99.

• Dobson, Alan P. Anglo-American Relations in the
Twentieth Century (1995)

• Williams, Paul. British Foreign Policy under New
Labour (2005)

• Dumbrell, John. A special relationship: AngloAmerican relations from the cold war to Iraq (2006)

• Woods, Randall Bennett. Changing of the Guard:
Anglo-American Relations, 1941–1946 (1990)



Primary sources

Special Relationship

• Coker, Christopher. “Britain and the new world order: the special relationship in the 1990s,” International Affairs (1992): 407-421. in JSTOR
• Colman, Jonathan.
A 'Special Relationship'?:
Harold Wilson, Lyndon B. Johnson and AngloAmerican Relations’ at the Summit, 1964-8 (Manchester University Press, 2004)
• Dobson, Alan and Steve Marsh. “Anglo-American
Relations: End of a Special Relationship?” International History Review 36:4 (August 2014): 673-697.
DOI: 10.1080/07075332.2013.836124. online review argues it is still in effect
• Dobson, Alan J. The Politics of the Anglo-American
Economic Special Relationship (1988)
• Dobson, Alan. “The special relationship and European integration.” Diplomacy and Statecraft (1991)
2#1 79-102.
• Dumbrell, John. A Special Relationship: AngloAmerican Relations in the Cold War and After
• Dumbrell, John. “The US–UK Special Relationship: Taking the 21st-Century Temperature.” The
British Journal of Politics & International Relations
(2009) 11#1 pp: 64-78. online
• Glancy, Mark. “Temporary American citizens?
British audiences, Hollywood films and the threat
of Americanization in the 1920s.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television (2006) 26#4 pp
• Hendershot, Robert M. Family Spats: Perception,
Illusion, and Sentimentality in the Anglo-American
Special Relationship (2008)
• Lyons, John F. America in the British Imagination:
1945 to the Present (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).
• Malchow, H.L. Special Relations: The Americanization of Britain? (Stanford University Press; 2011)
400 pages; explores American influence on the culture and counterculture of metropolitan London
from the 1950s to the 1970s, from “Swinging London” to black, feminist, and gay liberation. excerpt
and text search
• Pederson, William D. ed. A Companion to Franklin
D. Roosevelt (2011) online pp 493–516, covers
FDR’s policies
• Reynolds, David. Rich relations: the American occupation of Britain, 1942-1945 (1995)

• Reynolds, David. “A 'special relationship'? America, Britain and the international order since the Second World War.” International Affairs (1985): 120.
• Rofe, J. Simon and Alison R. Holmes, eds. The Embassy in Grosvenor Square: American Ambassadors
to the United Kingdom, 1938-2008 (2012), essays
by scholars how the ambassadors promoted a special relationship
• Watry, David M. Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War. Baton
Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014.

15.2 Primary sources
• Blair, Tony. A Journey: My Political Life (2010),
memoir by UK prime minister
• Loewenheim, Francis L. et al. eds. Roosevelt
and Churchill, their secret wartime correspondence

16 References
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[2] Panel I of A Hearing of the senate Foreign Relations Committee (Part 4) (January 21, 2010), Federal News Service,
[3] Giles, Chris (July 27, 2007). "/ Home UK / UK – Ties that
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[4] Alex Spillius, 'Special relationship Britain and America
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[24] Perkins (1955)
[25] Marshall Smelser, The Democratic Republic, 1801–1815
[26] Perkins p. vii
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[65] Allen (1954)

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17 External links
• History of United Kingdom – United States relations
from U.S. State Dept.
• Atlantic Archive: UK-US Relations in an Age of
Global War 1939–1945
• John Bull and Uncle Sam: Four Centuries of British
American Relations
• An analysis of the Special Relationship from a
British perspective. From the Second World War to
the latest global problems facing the United States.
• Lecture: Anti-Americanism and American Exceptionalism
• Goldwin Smith, “The Hatred of England,” (1890)
essay by Canadian scholar
• British Embassy in the United States of America
• Embassy of the United States of America in the
United Kingdom
• The Woodrow Wilson Center’s Nuclear Proliferation International History Project or NPIHP is a
global network of individuals and institutions engaged in the study of international nuclear history
through archival documents, oral history interviews
and other empirical sources.





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• File:Prince_of_Wales-5.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Prince_of_Wales-5.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph #: NH 67209 : http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-fornv/uk/uksh-p/
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• File:Pvt_Harry_Shelley_receives_British_Distinguished_Conduct_Medal_from_King_George_V.jpg
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• File:Saccwg_500_031708.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Saccwg_500_031708.jpg License: Public
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• File:Thatcher_Reagan_Camp_David_sofa_1984.jpg Source:
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Original artist: United Press International, photographer unknown
• File:The_Great_Rapprochement.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3b/The_Great_Rapprochement.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3f05745/ http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/99472459/
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• File:The_death_of_general_warren_at_the_battle_of_bunker_hill.jpg
From the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, accession #1977.853:
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• File:Twist-British-Tail.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/61/Twist-British-Tail.jpg License: PD-US Contributors:
Original publication: Puck Magazine
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